A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

Paul's First Letter to Timothy

1 Timothy 1:2-6:17


1 Timothy 1:12 :

TEXT: "I thank the One who has strengthened me, Christ"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c A D G H I K P Psi 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "I thank the One who strengthens me, Christ"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* 33 one lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: Some copyists apparently borrowed the present tense "strengthens" from Philippians 4:13.

1 Timothy 3:1:

TEXT: "·The saying is faithful:"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A Dc G K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEBn TEV
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "·The saying is human:" or "·The saying is popular:"
EVIDENCE: D* three lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

COMMENTS: Although the text reading might have been borrowed from such passages as 1 Timothy 4:9, 2 Timothy 2:11, and Titus 3:8, the manuscript evidence indicates that it is original.

1 Timothy 3:16:

TEXT: "He was made apparent in the flesh"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A* C* G 33 syr(pal) syr(p,h)? cop?
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "God was made apparent in the flesh"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)e A2 C2 Dc K L P Psi 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NASVn NIVn

NOTES: "Which was made apparent in the flesh"
EVIDENCE: D* lat vg syr(p,h)? cop?
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn

COMMENTS: The word "who" was changed to "which" by some copyists to refer to "mystery." In an older manuscript that does not have accents and breathing marks, all that is required to change the Greek word for "who" (OS) to the abbreviation for "God" (OS) is to add two marks. This happened to several manuscripts, apparently to give a definite subject to the following verbs.

1 Timothy 4:10:

TEXT: "to this [end] we labor and struggle"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A C F G K Psi 33 104 1175
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "to this [end] we labor and are reproached"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c D L P 81 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NEBn TEVn

COMMENTS: A majority of the UBS Textual Committee felt that the evidence for the text reading was slightly stronger.

1 Timothy 5:16:

TEXT: "·If any believing woman has [relatives who are] widows"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C F G P 048 33 81 1739 1881 three lat earlier vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV NEBn TEV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "·If any believing man or woman has [relatives who are] widows"
EVIDENCE: D K L Psi 104 614 630 1241 2495 Byz Lect three lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NEB

NOTES: "·If any believing man has [relatives who are] widows"
EVIDENCE: three lat later vg
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that copyists accidently omitted "believing man and" when their eyes jumped from "believing man" to "believing woman," it is more likely that other copyists added "believing man" to balance the command.

1 Timothy 6:7:

TEXT: "nothing into the world, and neither can"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A F G 048 061vid 33 81 1739 1881 two lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "nothing into the world; [it is] evident that neither can"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c Dc K L P Psi 104 614 630 1241 2495 Byz Lect most lat? syr(p,h) vg?
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NASVn

OTHER: "nothing into the world; [is is] true that neither can"
EVIDENCE: D* three lat most lat? vg?

COMMENTS: The same Greek word can be translated "because" or "that"; thus the differences in the readings are in the additions of "evident" or "true." The Coptic version has "and" which is apparently a paraphrase of "because." It seems that "evident" and "true" are additions by copyists designed to smooth out the grammar.



Paul's Second Letter to Timothy

2 Timothy 1:11-4:10


2 Timothy 1:11:

TEXT: "I was appointed a preacher and apostle and teacher"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A I syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "I was appointed a preacher and apostle and teacher of Gentiles"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c C D G K P Psi 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

TEXT: "I was appointed a preacher and apostle and servant (or, deacon)"
EVIDENCE: 33

COMMENTS: Although most manuscripts contain the word translated "of Gentiles," there is no good reason for it to have been omitted if original. Apparently copyists borrowed it from the similar verse in 1 Timothy 2:7.

2 Timothy 2:14:

TEXT: "charge [them] before God not to be fighting"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C G I 614 630 2495 most lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "charge [them] before the Lord not to be fighting"
EVIDENCE: A D K P Psi 048 81 104 1241 1739 1881 Byz Lect five lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north) one cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that "before God" was taken from 1 Timothy 5:4, 21 and 2 Timothy 4:1, a majority of the UBS Textual Committee felt that this was probably Paul's original usage.

2 Timothy 2:18:

TEXT: "saying that the resurrection has already happened"
EVIDENCE: A C D K P Psi 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "saying that a resurrection has already happened"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) G 048 33
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: The word "the" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. The great majority of evidence indicates that it original. Latin and Syriac do not have a definite article.

2 Timothy 4:10:

TEXT: "Crescens has gone to Galatia"
EVIDENCE: A D F G K L P Psi 33 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat later vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Crescens has gone to Gaul"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C 81 104 earlier vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: There are only two letters' difference in the spelling of "Galatia" and "Gaul" in Greek. Since the two places were inhabited by the same race of people, in the early centuries of this era "Gaul" was called "Galatia." Thus the reading "Gaul" may be due to a misspelling or it may be due to copyists who felt that the "Galatia" referred to was actually "Gaul." Gaul is in modern day France, while Galatia is in modern day Turkey.



Paul's Letter to Titus


Titus 2:7:

TEXT: " In [your] teaching [show] integrity (Lit. incorruption), dignity,"
EVIDENCE: p32vid Aleph(א) A C D* F G P 33 81 1739 1881 lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: " In [your] teaching [show] integrity (Lit. incorruption), dignity, incorruptibility,"
EVIDENCE: D2 K L Psi 104 630 1241 Maj syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "incorruptibility" (also found in 2 Timothy 1:10 among other places) was perhaps added by later copyists as an explanation of the rare word translated "integrity" or "incorruption." The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.



Paul's Letter to Philemon

Philemon 2-25


Philemon 2:

TEXT: "to Apphia [our] sister"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A D* F G I P 048 0278 33 81 104 1739 1881 early vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "to Apphia [our] beloved"
EVIDENCE: D2 K L Psi 630 1241 Maj syr(p) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "to Apphia [our] beloved sister"
EVIDENCE: some lat later vg syr(h)

COMMENTS: The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Philemon 6:

TEXT: "every good thing that is in us for Christ."
EVIDENCE: A C D K Psi 048vid 81 614 630 1241 2495 Byz Lect three lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV73n NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "every good thing that is in plyou for Christ."
EVIDENCE: p61 Aleph(א) G P 33 104 1739 1881 five lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NASV CSBn

OTHER: "every good thing that is for Christ."
EVIDENCE: four lat

COMMENTS: The words "us" and "plyou" were pronounced alike in later Greek. Because of all the second person pronouns in the context, "us" was more likely to be misunderstood as "plyou" than vice versa.

Philemon 12:

TEXT: "I have sent him back to you, [yes], him, this one who is my [very] heart."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A {F G} 33
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "I have sent him back to you, [yes], receive him, this one who is my [very] heart."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 C D {K L P} Psi (0278 81 104 630 1241 1739 1881 Maj lat (syr)}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently copyists introduced the word "receive" at various places in the sentence from verse 17 to smooth out a rather awkward construction. The evidence in braces has the subject "you" rather than "to you."

Philemon 25:

TEXT: "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) P 33 81 104 1739 1881 syr(h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ"
EVIDENCE: A C D K Psi 614 630 1241 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV CSBn

COMMENTS: There was a tendency for copyists to expand the name and titles of Jesus.

Philemon 25:

TEXT: "[be] with plyour spirit."
EVIDENCE: A D* 048vid 33 81 1881 two lat some cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "[be] with plyour spirit. Amen."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C Dc K P Psi 104 614 630 1241 1739 2495 Byz most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NASVn

COMMENTS: There was a tendency for copyists to add "Amen" at the end of a letter.


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