A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

Romans 10:9-16:27


Romans 10:1:

TEXT: "petition to God for them"
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א) A B D G P Psi 33 1739 1881 2495 most lat syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "petition to God for Israel"
EVIDENCE: K 81 104 614 630 1241 Byz Lect one lat
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV TEV ("my own people") CSBn

COMMENTS: Later copyists replaced the pronoun "them" with the implied noun to clarify the meaning.

Romans 10:9:

TEXT: "if you confess with your mouth [that] Jesus [is] Lord"
EVIDENCE: p46 ("Jesus Christ") Aleph(א) A ("Jesus Christ") D G K P Psi 33 81 ("that") 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) syr(pal) ("that") cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "if you confess the word with your mouth that Jesus [is] Lord"
EVIDENCE: B cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: Some Alexandrian copyists tried to make the statement more precise by adding "the word" and "that" to it. Copyists were often tempted to add "Christ" to "Jesus."

Romans 10:17:

TEXT: "what is heard comes through the word of Christ"
EVIDENCE: p46vid Aleph(א)* B C D* 81 1739 lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "what is heard comes through the word of God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c A Db,c K L P Psi 33 104 614 630 1241 1881 2495 Byz Lect syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently a number of copyists substituted the common phrase "word of God" for the rare expression "word of Christ." The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of both Alexandrian and Western text types.

Romans 11:6:

TEXT: "otherwise grace is no longer grace."
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א)* A C D G P 81 630 1739 1881 lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if [it is] by works, it is no longer by grace; otherwise work is no longer work."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c B (end with "no longer grace") Psi 104 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn NIV84n CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional sentence seems to have been added by copyists based on verse 6 and exchanging the words "works" and "grace." It is absent from early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text.

Romans 11:17:

TEXT: "in the rich root of the olive tree"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B C Psi
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSVn NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV("strongspiritual life") CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "in the root and the richness of the olive tree"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c A Db,c P 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect four lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NEB REB CSBn

NOTES: "in the richness of the olive tree"
EVIDENCE: p46 D* G three lat one cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSVn ESVn

OTHER: "in the richness of the root of the olive tree"
EVIDENCE: most cop

COMMENTS: The text reading is literally three genitives together: "of the root of the richness of the olive tree." This strangeness of this construction probably caused copyists to change it by adding "and" or omitting "of the root" or switching "root" and "richness."

Romans 11:21:

TEXT: "perhaps he will neither spare you"
EVIDENCE: p46 D G Psi 33 104 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "he will neither spare you"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C P 81 630 1739 1881 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The reading "perhaps" is in brackets in the UBS text. Although the manuscript evidence for its omission is strong, the word is ungrammatical when used with the future tense and may have been omitted for that reason. Since it is ungrammatical (it would expect a subjunctive verb, not the future), it is not likely to have been added by copyists.

Romans 11:31:

TEXT: "they also may now obtain mercy."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D*,d cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSVn NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "they also may obtain mercy."
EVIDENCE: p46 A Db,c G Psi 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSV NRSVn ESVn NIVn NEB REB TEVn CSBn

OTHER: "they also may later obtain mercy"
EVIDENCE: 33 cop(south)

COMMENTS: The word "now" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. Although it is possible that "now" or "later" was added here by copyists to balance the "now" in the first phrase, it is more likely that copyists who noticed that the Jews (although they could have) did not in fact obtain mercy at the time of Paul's writing either changed "now" to "later" or omitted the word.

Romans 12:11:

TEXT: "serving the Lord."
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א) A B Db,c P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "serving the opportunity."
EVIDENCE: D* F G two lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn NEBn

COMMENTS: The Greek words for "Lord" and "opportunity" are KURIO and KAIRO, respectively. The replacement of KURIO with KAIRO was probably due to a mistake of the eye, especially if they were in their abbreviated form, which is only one letter different.

Romans 12:14:

TEXT: "Keep blessing those who persecute plyou;"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A D P Psi 81 104 614 630 1241 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat later vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Keep blessing those who persecute;"
EVIDENCE: p46 B 1739 earlier vg
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn

COMMENTS: The word "plyou" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. Although it is possible that "plyou" was added by copyists who remembered the similar statements in Matthew 5:44 and Luke 6:28, it is more likely that it was omitted to make the statement more general.

Romans 13:9:

TEXT: "You shall not steal, You shall not covet"
EVIDENCE: p46 A B D G 33 614 630 1241 1739 1881 Lect some lat early vg syr(p) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "You shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness, You shall not covet"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) (P) Psi 048 81 104 (2495) Byz some lat later vg (syr(h)) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The addition is apparently added from the Ten Commandments in the Greek Old Testament (LXX). It is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Romans 13:11:

TEXT: "[it is] already the hour for plyou to wake from sleep. For now our salvation [is] nearer than when we [first] believed."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A B C P 81 1881 cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "[it is] already the hour for us to wake from sleep. For now our salvation [is] nearer than when we [first] believed."
EVIDENCE: p46vid Aleph(א)c D G Psi 33 104 614 630 1241 1739 2495 Byz lat vg syr(p) cop(sourth)
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

OTHER: "[it is] already the hour to wake from sleep. For now our salvation [is] nearer than when we [first] believed."
EVIDENCE: syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

COMMENTS: The KJV and NKJV strangely omit the words "for us" found in the Greek text of the majority of Byzantine manuscripts and the Textus Receptus. The Greek words for plyou and us were pronounced alike in later Greek. Although there is strong support for the reading in the notes, it is more likely that "plyou" was changed to to "us" to match the "our" and "we" in the last part of the verse.

Romans 14:4:

TEXT: "the Lord is able to make him stand"
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א) A B C P Psi cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "God is able to make him stand"
EVIDENCE: D G 048 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

OTHER: "his Lord is able to make him stand"
EVIDENCE: syr(p)

COMMENTS: The earliest manuscripts read "the Lord."

Romans 14:6:

TEXT: "The one who thinks the day [is special], thinks [so] in the Lord's [honor]."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C2vid D F G 048 630 1739 1881 lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "The one who thinks the day [is special], thinks [so] in the Lord's [honor]; the one who doesn't think the day [is special], [it is] in the Lord's [honor] he doesn't think [so] ."
EVIDENCE: C3 L P Psi 33 81 104 1241 Maj syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra clauses in the notes were apparently added by copyists to balance the statement with the following sentence. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Romans 14:10:

TEXT: "we shall all stand before the judgment seat of God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A B C* D G 630 1739 most lat early vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c C2vid P Psi 048 0209vid 33 81 104 614 1241 1881 2495 Byz some lat later vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "God" was apparently changed to "Christ" by copyists who remembered the similar statement in 2 Corinthians 5:10. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Romans 14:12:

TEXT: "each of us shall give account of himself to God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C D P Psi 048 0209 33 81 104 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "each of us shall give account of himself"
EVIDENCE: B G 630 1739 1881 some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

COMMENTS: The words "to God" are in backets in the UBS text. Although it is difficult to understand why they might have been omitted, the fact that they are in so many early manuscripts caused the UBS committee to retain them.

Romans 14:19:

TEXT: "So then, let us keep pursuing the things"
EVIDENCE: C D Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV73 NASV95 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "So then, we are pursuing the things"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B G P 048
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV73n NASV95 TEVn

COMMENTS: The difference between the two readings is between a long "o" and a short "o." It is likely that the variation here is due to a mistake of the ear. Although elsewhere in Romans (see 5:18; 7:3, 25; 8:12; 9:16, 18; 14:12) "so then" is followed by the indicative mood ("we are pursuing") the UBS Textual Committee felt that the exhortation given by the subjunctive mood ("let us keep pursuing") is more appropriate here.

Romans 14:21:

TEXT: "by which your brother stumbles."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a A C 048 81 1739 one lat syr(p) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "by which your brother stumbles or is ensnared or is weakened."
EVIDENCE: p46vid Aleph(א)c B D G Psi 33 104 614 630 1241 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

OTHER: "by which your brother stumbles or is weakened."
EVIDENCE: syr(pal)

OTHER: "by which your brother is grieved."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*

OTHER: "by which your brother is grieved or is ensnared or is weakened."
EVIDENCE: P

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that "is ensnared or is weakened" were omitted to make this verse end with "stumbles" and thus parallel with verse 20, it is more likely that these words were added by copyists who recalled I Corinthians 8:11-13. The word "grieved" was added from verse 15.

Romans 14:23:

TEXT: chapter 15 follows verse 23
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א) B C D F G 048vid 81 630 1739 most lat most vg syr(p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: chapter 15 follows doxology of 16:25-27 which follows verse 23
EVIDENCE: A L P Psi 33 104 614 1175 1241 1881 2495 Byz Lect one lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEBn REBn

OTHER: book ends with 16:24-27 which follows verse 23
EVIDENCE: three vg

COMMENTS: See Romans 15:33 and 16:25-27. The doxology traditionally found in English versions at Romans 16:25-27 is found here in many manuscripts, apparently because it was found at the end of some manuscripts that ended the book with this chapter.

Romans 15:7:

TEXT: "just as Christ has also received plyou"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C Db,c G Psi 33 81 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "just as Christ has also received us"
EVIDENCE: B D* P 048 104 614 three lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NASV NEB REB

COMMENTS: The Greek words for plyou and us were pronounced alike in later Greek. Although it is possible that "us" was changed to "plyou" either accidently through a mistake of the ear or deliberately to agreed with the several occurrences of "plyou" in the surrounding verses, the number of manuscripts reading "plyou" makes it more likely that "plyou" was accidently changed to "us" through a mistake of the ear.

Romans 15:15:

TEXT: "But I have written to †you rather daringly"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A B C 81 630 1739 1881 two lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "But I have written to †you rather daringly, brothers,"
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א)2 D F G L P Psi 33 104 1241 Maj most lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "brothers" seems to have been added by copyists from the previous verse.

Romans 15:15:

TEXT: "because of the grace given me by God"
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א)2 A C D G Psi Maj
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "because of the grace given me from God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B F
TRANSLATIONS: NASV NEB REB

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that "given from" was changed by copyists to the more usual "given by," the great number of manuscripts that read "by" would indicate that the text reading is original.

Romans 15:19:

TEXT: "in the power of the Spirit of God,"
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א) Db P Psi 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSV ESV ASVn NIV2011 TEV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "in the power of the Spirit,"
EVIDENCE: B
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn NASV NIV84

NOTES: "in the power of the Holy Spirit,"
EVIDENCE: A D*,c G 33 81 104 630 1739 1881 lat vg syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn NEB REB

COMMENTS: The word for "of God" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS Greek text. Although it is possible that originally no word modified "Spirit" and copyists added either "God's" or "Holy," the evidence for this is very little. The text reading is that found in the earliest manuscript (p46).

Romans 15:24:

TEXT: "24[I plan to visit plyou] whenever I am going to Spain"
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א)* A B C D F G P Psi 81 1739 1881 lat syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "whenever I am going to Spain, I will come to you"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 L 33 104 630 1241 Maj syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Several English translations add words of a planned visit without marking them as added. The transition from verse 23 to verse 24 is slighly awkward so a number of later copyists apparently added words to the sentence to smooth it out.

Romans 15:29:

TEXT: "in the fulness of the blessing of Christ."
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א)* A B C D P 81 630 1739 1881 most lat earlier vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "in the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c Psi 33 104 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect one lat later vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The shorter reading is found in early manuscripts of several different kinds of ancient text.

Romans 15:31:

TEXT: "my service for Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א) A C D2 L P Psi 33 81 104 630 1241 1739 1881 Maj
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "my bringing of a gift for Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: B D* F G most old lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NIV2011 ("contribution")

COMMENTS: Although several early manuscripts have the rare word that means "bringing of a gift" and it can be argued that the rare word was replaced by copyists using the more generic one of "service" or "ministry," a large number of manuscripts, several early, have the generic word.

Romans 15:33:

TEXT: "the God of peace [be] with plyou all. Amen."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D P Psi 33 81 104 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NRSV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "the God of peace [be] with plyou all."
EVIDENCE: A G 630 1739 1881 three lat
TRANSLATIONS: none

NOTES: "the God of peace [be] with plyou all." plus the doxology usually found at Romans 16:25-27 here between chapters 15 and 16
EVIDENCE: p46
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: Although copyists might have been tempted to add "Amen" following the blessing in verse 33, the manuscript evidence would seem to indicate that it was originally present. On the addition of the doxology here see also Romans 14:23 and 16:25-27. Perhaps its presence here in manuscript p46 reflects an earlier copy of the book of Romans that circulated without most of chapter 16.

Romans 16:5:

TEXT: "Greet my beloved Epaenetus, who is the firstfruits of Asia for Christ."
EVIDENCE: p46 p118 Aleph(א) A B C D* F G 81 630 1739 lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Greet my beloved Epaenetus, who is the firstfruits of Achaia for Christ."
EVIDENCE: D1 L P Psi 33 104 1241 1881 Maj syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Later copyists, perhaps with the phrase "firstfruits of Achais" from I Corinthians 16:15 in mind, wrote "Achaia" instead of "Asia." The text reading "Asia" is supported by early manuscripts of mulitple text types.

Romans 16:6:

TEXT: "Greet Mary, who has labored much for plyou"
EVIDENCE: p46 p118 Aleph(א) A B C* {D F G} P Psi 81 1739 1881
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Greet Mary, who has labored much for us"
EVIDENCE: C2 L 33 104 630 1241 Maj one lat early vg
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "us" and "plyou" in Greek came to be pronounced alike, thus leading to confusion on the part of copyists. The evidence in braces reads "among plyou." The text reading is supported by early manuscripts from multiple text types.

Romans 16:7:

TEXT: "Greet Andronicus and Junia" (or, "Junias")
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D G P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "Greet Andronicus and Julia" (or, "Julias")
EVIDENCE: p46 some lat cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEBn TEVn

COMMENTS: Both names could be either a man's or a woman's. A few scribes miscopied the name "IOUNIAN" as "IOULIAN." See verse 15 for the opposite error.

Romans 16:15:

TEXT: "Greet Philologus and Julia" (or, "Julias")
EVIDENCE: p46 ("Aoulia") Aleph(א) A B C2 D P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "Greet Philologus and Junia" (or, "Junias")
EVIDENCE: C* G
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: Both names could be either a man's or a woman's. A few scribes miscopied the name "IOULIAN" as "IOUNIAN." See verse 7 for the opposite error.

Romans 16:20:

TEXT: "crush Satan under plyour feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus [be] with plyou."
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א) {A} B {C P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 1241 1739} 1881 {2495 Byz Lect five lat vg syr(p,h) cop}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "crush Satan under plyour feet."
EVIDENCE: D G five lat
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn NEBn REBn TEVn

COMMENTS: The evidence listed in braces adds "Christ" to "Jesus," a common scribal expansion. The manuscripts that omit the benediction here have apparently moved it to follow verse 23, perhaps to prevent the greetings in verse 21 through 23 from looking like an afterthought.

Romans 16:24:

TEXT: omit verse 24
EVIDENCE: p46 p61 Aleph(א) A B C 81 1739 one lat earlier vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV73 NASV95n NASV2020 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: include verse 24: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with plyou all. Amen."
EVIDENCE: D G (omit "Jesus Christ") Psi 614 630 1241 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat later vg syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NASVn ESVn NASV73n NASV (in brackets) NASV2020n NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

NOTES: include verse 24 after verse 27 instead of here
EVIDENCE: P 33 104 syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEBn REBn TEVn

COMMENTS: The oldest manuscripts have this sentence at the end of verse 20. Some manuscripts moved it here and others combined the two by having it both places. See the comments above. A few manuscripts have it both at the end of verse 20 and at the end of verse 27.

Romans 16:25-27:

TEXT: include verses 25-27 here
EVIDENCE: p61vid Aleph(א) B C D 81 630 1739 most lat most vg {syr(p)} cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: include verses 25-27 both here and at the end of chapter 14
EVIDENCE: p61? A {P 33 104}
TRANSLATIONS: TEVn

NOTES: omit verses 25-27 here but include them at the end of chapter 14
EVIDENCE: L Psi 614 1241 1881 2495 Byz one lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

NOTES: omit verses 25-27 here but include them at the end of chapter 15
EVIDENCE: p46
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

NOTES: omit verses 25-27 altogether
EVIDENCE: F G (both Greek and Latin--but leave space at the end of chapter 14) 629
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: Verses 25-27 are enclosed in brackets in the UBS text, since they are missing here from many manuscripts. They are included here by early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text. See also the comments on Romans 14:23 and 15:33. The evidence listed in braces inserts verse 24 following these verses. Manuscript p61 only contains Romans 16:23-27. Three vulgate manuscripts omit chapter 15:1 through 16:23.

Romans 16:27:

TEXT: "to the only wise God, to him [be] glory through Jesus Christ forever! Amen"
EVIDENCE: p46 Aleph(א) A C D {P} Psi 33 {81 104} 614 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg {syr(h)} cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NRSV NEBn CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "to the only wise God [be] glory through Jesus Christ forever! Amen"
EVIDENCE: B 630 one lat syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSV NRSVn ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV

NOTES: also add verse 24 here: "to the only wise God, to him [be] glory through Jesus Christ forever! "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with plyou all. Amen. "
EVIDENCE: 33 104 syr(p) (omit "to whom") some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEBn REBn TEVn

COMMENTS: The words "to him" are literally "to whom" which makes for a difficult grammatical construction. The evidence listed in braces changes it to "to him" to make it easier. A few manuscripts removed the grammatical difficulty by omitting it altogether.


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