A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

Acts 12:25-20:15


Acts 12:25:

TEXT: "Barnabas and Saul returned when they had fulfilled [their] ministry in Jerusalem" or "Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem when they had fulfilled [their] ministry"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B P 81 1241 2495 Byz Lect syr(h)margin
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSV ESVn NASV95n NASV2020 NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem when they had fulfilled [their] ministry"
EVIDENCE: {p74 A} D Psi {33} 614 three lat vg syr(h) {cop(north)}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV95 NIV NEB REB TEV CSBn

OTHER: "Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem to Antioch when they had fulfilled [their] ministry"
EVIDENCE: E 323 {945 1739 two lat syr(p) cop(south)}

COMMENTS: The Greek preposition in the text (literally, "into") can be taken either to mean "in" or "to." If it means "in" it modifies "fulfilled"; if it means "to" it modifies "returned" and implies that Barnabas and Saul personally took the gift of relief to the elders in all the churches throughout Judea (Acts 11:29-30). Because chapter 13 opens with Barnabas and Saul at Antioch, many copyists expected the text to say that they left Jerusalem. Therefore they changed "into" to either "from" or "out of" (those manuscripts reading "out of" are enclosed in braces above) and some of them added "into Antioch."

Acts 13:18:

TEXT: "he put up with them in the wilderness."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A*vid B C2 D P 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect one lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "he like a nurse cared for them in the wilderness."
EVIDENCE: p74 Ac C* E Psi 33vid three lat syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The difference in the two readings is only one letter: the text reading has a "p" and the reading in the notes has a "ph" or "f." Thus the variation is due to a mistake of the ear. It is difficult to know which is original. The allusion is to Deuteronomy 1:31 where the Greek Old Testament shows the same variation. Since most Old Testament manuscripts read "he like a nurse cared for," it is slightly more probably that "he put up with" was changed to "he like a nurse cared for" to read like the prevailing Old Testament text than vice versa.

Acts 13:23:

TEXT: "brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C (D) Psi 81 614 945 1739 vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "brought to Israel salvation"
EVIDENCE: p74 E H L 33 1241 Maj
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading "salvation" is probably due to the fact that the abbreviations of "Savior Jesus" are the same as the abbreviation of "salvation." The text is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 13:26:

TEXT: "to us the word of this salvation has been sent out"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B D 33 81 614 cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "to plyou the word of this salvation has been sent out"
EVIDENCE: p45 C E P Psi 049 056 0142 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn

COMMENTS: The words "us" and "plyou" in Greek came to be pronounced alike, thus leading to confusion on the part of copyists. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts from both the Alexandrian and Western text types.

Acts 13:33:

TEXT: "God has fulfilled to us their children"
EVIDENCE: C3 E P 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect one lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV95n NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "God has fulfilled to our children"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C* D four lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NASV95 NEBn REBn

NOTES: "God has fulfilled to their children"
EVIDENCE: 629 one lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: none

NOTES: "God has fulfilled to the children"
EVIDENCE: some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB

NOTES: "God has fulfilled to us children"
EVIDENCE: 142
TRANSLATIONS: NASV2020

OTHER: "God has fulfilled to plyour children"
EVIDENCE: Psi one lat

COMMENTS: The word "their" is in brackets in the UBS text. Three readings commend themselves as possibly original: "us their," "our," and "us." Since "our" is not expected, it is possible that it was changed to "us" or to "their." If "our" is original then "us their" would be a combination of two attempts to make better sense of the passage. If "us" is original, "our" would have been an early corruption which led to a correction "their" and "us their" would have been a combination of two readings. If "us their" is original, "us" and "their" would have come from it when one word or the other was accidently left out, and "our" would have been an early corruption of "us." The reading "plyour" is due to a mistake of the ear, since in later Greek the words for "our" and "plyour" sounded alike.

Acts 13:33:

TEXT: "written in the second psalm"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz two lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "written in the first psalm"
EVIDENCE: D three lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

NOTES: "written in the psalm"
EVIDENCE: p45vid ("psalms") 522 1175
TRANSLATIONS: none

COMMENTS: In both the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds there are examples of Jewish rabbis treating the first and second psalms as one psalm, thus making the quotation (Psalm 2:7) from the first psalm rather than the second psalm. The Greek Old Testament treats these as two separate psalms, making the quotation from the second psalm. This explains the two different readings "first" and "second." But did Luke follow the Greek Old Testament or the Jewish rabbinic method of numbering the psalms? Since there is no evidence that the rabbinic method of numbering the psalms was in use in the first century and because only a few Western manuscripts have the reading "first," it is likely that Luke originally wrote "second." Although it is possible that the omission of either word is original, it is unlikely that so many manuscripts would have added a number if that had been the case.

Acts 13:42:

TEXT: "as they went out, [the people] started appealing that these words"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C D E Psi 097 33vid 81 614 945 1739 lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV [NIV NEB REB TEV (add "the synagogue")] CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "as they went out of the synagogue of the Jews, the Gentiles started appealing that these words"
EVIDENCE: L P 049 056 (0142) 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: A number of later copyists seem to have added clarification in the form of subjects and objects to the verse.

Acts 13:44:

TEXT: "gathered together to hear the word of the Lord."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B3 33 81 945 1739 two lat earlier vg cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSV ESV NASV73n NASV95 NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "gathered together to hear the word of God."
EVIDENCE: B* C E P Psi 614 1241 2495 Byz two lat later vg syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn NASV73 NASV95n NEB REB CSBn

OTHER: "gathered together to hear much word that Paul made about the Lord."
EVIDENCE: D (both Greek and Latin)

COMMENTS: The phrase "the word of God" is much more common in the New Testament than "the word of the Lord"; thus copyists would be more likely to change the less common phrase to the more common one than vice versa. See below.

Acts 13:48:

TEXT: "and glorifying the word of the Lord"
EVIDENCE: p45 p74 Aleph(א) A C P Psi 33 81 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz three lat vg most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "and glorifying the word of God"
EVIDENCE: B E (Greek only) cop(north) one cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASVn

OTHER: "and accepted the word of God"
EVIDENCE: D (Greek only) one lat ("the word of the Lord")

OTHER: "and glorifying God"
EVIDENCE: 614 syr

COMMENTS: The expression "glorify the word of the Lord" or "glorify the word of God" does not occur elsewhere in scripture which caused copyists to change it in some way ("accept the word" or "glorify God"). Although it is possible that "the word of the Lord" was borrowed by copyists from verse 49, since the phrase "the word of God" is much more common in the New Testament than "the word of the Lord," copyists would be more likely to change the less common phrase to the more common one than vice versa.

Acts 14:17:

TEXT: "filling plyour hearts with food and gladness"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B C D E some lat syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "filling our hearts with food and gladness"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c A H L P Byz later vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 15:7:

TEXT: "God made a choice among plyou"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C 33 81 945 1739 one lat (cop(north))
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "God made a choice among us"
EVIDENCE: (D E H L P) Psi (049 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(h))
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "God made a choice"
EVIDENCE: some vg syr(p) cop(south)
COMMENTS: The words "us" and "plyou" in Greek came to be pronounced alike, thus leading to confusion on the part of copyists. The text reading is supported by the earliest manuscripts.

Acts 15:18:

TEXT: "'things' known from an age [long past]."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C Psi 33 81 1739 2495 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "'things.' Known to the Lord from an age [long past] is his work."
EVIDENCE: p74 A D two lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: NIVn

NOTES: "'things.' Known to God from an age [long past] are all his works."
EVIDENCE: E P 614 1241 Byz two lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The phrase "known from an age [long past] is an elliptical phrase added by James to the quotation from Amos 9:12. Since the quotation ends with "things," many copyists expanded this phrase into a complete sentence. Note that some English translations begin the verse earlier.

Acts 15:20:

TEXT: "abstain from the pollutions of idols and [from] fornication and [from] what is strangled and [from] blood."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C E P Psi 33 81 614 1241 2495 Byz two lat vg syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B, C, A, A (against notes, in order)

NOTES: "abstain from the pollutions of idols and [from] what is strangled and [from] blood."
EVIDENCE: p45
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

NOTES: "abstain from the pollutions of idols and [from] fornication and [from] blood."
EVIDENCE: one lat
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn NEBn REBn

NOTES: "abstain from the pollutions of idols and [from] fornication and [from] blood; and what they do not wish to be done to themselves do not do to others."
EVIDENCE: D (both Greek and Latin)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

NOTES: "abstain from the pollutions of idols and [from] fornication and [from] what is strangled and [from] blood; and whatever they do not wish to be done to themselves not to do to others."
EVIDENCE: 945 1739 one lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: The text reading is adequately supported by early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text. The omission of "and fornication" may have been due to a mistake of the eye, when copyists' eyes jumped from "and" to "and." On the other hand, it may have been due to an attempt by copyists to make all of the laws ceremonial. While it might be possible that "and things strangled" was accidently omitted due to a mistake of the eye, the fact that the same words are omitted in verse 29 and the negative golden rule added seem to indicate that this was an attempt to make all the laws moral ones (taking "blood" as "blood-shedding" and adding the negative golden rule). See verse 29.

Acts 15:24:

TEXT: "we have heard that some who went out from us"
EVIDENCE: p33 p74 Aleph(א)c A C D E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NRSV ESV NIV NEBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "we have heard that some from us" EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B 88
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV ESVn NASV NEB REB
COMMENTS: The Greek word for "who went out" is in brackets in the UBS text. Although "who went out" might have been added under the influence of Galatians 2:12 or to avoid the idea that the senders ("some of us") of the letter were teaching this, its presence in so many manuscripts of different kinds of ancient text indicates that it is probably original.

Acts 15:24:

TEXT: "unsettling plyour souls"
EVIDENCE: p33 p45vid p74 Aleph(א) A B D 33 81 614 945 three lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "unsettling plyour souls, saying to be circumcised and keep the law"
EVIDENCE: C (E) P Psi 049 056 (0142) 1241 1739 Byz two lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra clause seems to have been added by copyists from verse 5. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 15:29:

TEXT: "abstain from [meat] sacrificed to idols and [from] blood and [from] things strangled and [from] fornication."
EVIDENCE: p33 {p74} Aleph(א)* {Aleph(א)c} A* {A2} B C {E P Psi 33} 81 {1241 2495 Byz two lat most vg syr} cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "abstain from [meat] sacrificed to idols and [from] blood and and [from] fornication; and what plyou do not wish to be done to plyourselves not to do to another."
EVIDENCE: D two lat some vg
TRANSLATIONS: [RSVn NRSVn (only the omission of "things strangled")] NEBn REBn

NOTES: "abstain from [meat] sacrificed to idols and [from] blood and [from] things strangled and [from] fornication; and what plyou do not wish to be done to plyourselves not to do to others."
EVIDENCE: 614 {945 1739 three lat some vg} cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

NOTES: "abstain from [meat] sacrificed to idols and [from] blood and [from] what is strangled."
EVIDENCE: one vg*
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: The evidence listed above in braces reads "what is strangled" rather than "things strangled." This was probably a change made by copyists to make the text read like verse 20. While it might be possible that "and things strangled" was accidently omitted due to a mistake of the eye, the fact that the same words are omitted in verse 20 and the negative golden rule added seem to indicate that this was an attempt to make all the laws moral ones. See verse 20.

Acts 15:33:

TEXT: "they were sent off in peace by the brothers to those who had sent them"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "they were sent off in peace by the brothers to the apostles"
EVIDENCE: E H L P Byz some syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 15:34:

TEXT: omit verse 34
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B E P Psi 81 1241 2495 Byz two lat earlier vg syr most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: include verse 34: "But it seemed [good] to Silas to remain there."
EVIDENCE: C 33 614 945 1739 one lat some cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

NOTES: "include verse 34: "But it seemed [good] to Silas to remain there, and only Judas went."
EVIDENCE: D five lat
TRANSLATIONS: none

NOTES: "include verse 34: "But it seemed [good] to Silas to remain there, and only Judas went to Jerusalem."
EVIDENCE: one lat later vg
TRANSLATIONS: none

COMMENTS: In verse 40 we find Silas again in Antioch after leaving for Jerusalem in verse 33. To explain this, some copyists added this sentence saying that he never left.

Acts 16:11:

TEXT: "Now setting sail from Troas"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A E Psi 33 81 1175 vg cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn ("And")
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Therefore setting sail from Troas"
EVIDENCE: B C H L Maj one lat syr(h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV [ESV NASV NEB ("So")]

OTHER: "Now the next day setting sail from Troas"
EVIDENCE: D 614

COMMENTS: The NRSV, NIV, REB and TEV do not begin the verse with any conjunction. It was more usual to have "Therefore" begin a new section than "Now," so many copyists replaced "Now" with "Therefore."

Acts 16:12:

TEXT: "Philippi, which is a city of the first district of Macedonia"
EVIDENCE: three later vg manuscripts
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn TEV
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "Philippi, which is a principal city of the district of Macedonia"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C P Psi 33 81 945 Byz most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEVn CSB

OTHER: "Philippi, which is a principal city of Macedonia"
EVIDENCE: 614 1241 1739 2495 syr(h)

OTHER: "Philippi, which is a head city of Macedonia"
EVIDENCE: D (both Greek and Latin) syr(p)

COMMENTS: The final letter of "first" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. If omitted it would give the reading in the notes. The text reading is essentially a conjecture that was supported by three out of five members of the UBS Textual Committee because of the difficulty of understanding the phrase "first city." It does not mean "the chief city" (KJV) or "the leading city" (RSV and NIV), for that honor goes to the city of Thessalonica. However, as two of the five members point out, it can mean "a leading city" and that is probably its meaning here. The reading in the notes is preferable. The RSV gives a footnote saying that the Greek text is uncertain.

Acts 16:13:

TEXT: "riverside, where we were supposing there was a place of prayer"
EVIDENCE: A2 B C Psi 33 81 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "riverside, where it was being supposed there was a place of prayer"
EVIDENCE: A*vid? E P 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz syr?
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NEBn REBn

OTHER: "riverside, where he was supposing there was a place of prayer"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א)

OTHER: "riverside, where it seemed there was a place of prayer"
EVIDENCE: D lat vg syr?

COMMENTS: The reading in the notes can also be translated "where, according to the custom, there was a place of prayer." Out of a variety of readings the UBS Textual Committee chose a reading that was supported by early manuscripts.

Acts 16:17:

TEXT: "who are proclaiming to plyou the way of salvation"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) B D E (Greek only) 1739 most lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "who are proclaiming to us the way of salvation"
EVIDENCE: A C P Psi 049 056 0142 33 81 614 945 1241 2495 Byz Lect some lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "us" and "plyou" in Greek came to be pronounced alike, thus leading to confusion on the part of copyists. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 16:32:

TEXT: "they spoke the word of the Lord to him"
EVIDENCE: p45 p74 Aleph(א)c A C D E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect four lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV95 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "they spoke the word of God to him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn NASV95n NASV2020 NEBn

OTHER: "they spoke the word to him"
EVIDENCE: one lat

COMMENTS: The phrase "the word of God" is much more common in the New Testament than "the word of the Lord"; thus copyists would be more likely to change the less common phrase to the more common one than vice versa.

Acts 16:36:

TEXT: "'now therefore come out and go in peace.' But"
EVIDENCE: p45vid p74 Aleph(א) A B C E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz three lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "'now therefore come out and go.' But"
EVIDENCE: D two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: Perhaps the words "in peace" were omitted by copyists who felt they were inappropriate for a jailer.

Acts 17:4:

TEXT: "and not a few of the prominent women."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect two lat cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "and not a few of the wives of prominent [men]."
EVIDENCE: D three lat vg syr cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: It is possible also to translate the text reading as the reading in the notes is translated, but the reading in the notes cannot be translated as the text reading. Probably copyists chose to make one meaning clear and remove the ambiguity by changing the wording.

Acts 17:13:

TEXT: "stirring up and troubling the crowds"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B (D) (Psi) 33 81 614 945 1739 2495 most lat vg syr(h) (syr(p)) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "stirring up the crowds"
EVIDENCE: p45 E P 049 056 0120 0142 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiplte text types. The omission seems to be a mistake of the eye since both verbs (participles) end with the same five letters.

Acts 17:26:

TEXT: "he made from one every nation of men"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B 33 81 1739 vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV {"ancestor") [ESV NASV NIV ("man")] [NEB REB ("stock")] TEV ("human being") CSB ("man")
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "he made from one blood every nation of men"
EVIDENCE: D E P 614 945 1241 2495 Byz Lect lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NRSVn CSBn

OTHER: "he made from one mouth every nation of men"
EVIDENCE: Psi

COMMENTS: It is possible that the word "blood" was accidently omitted by a mistake of the eye (both "one" and "blood" end in the same two letters) or that it was deliberately omitted because Genesis 2:7 says that God made man from dust, but since it missing from most Alexandrian manuscripts and some Western, and is the kind of addition that Western copyists often made, it is omitted from the text here.

Acts 17:27:

TEXT: "that they should be seeking God"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B 049 056 0142 81 614 (945) 1241 1739 (2495) some Byz one lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "that they should be seeking the Lord"
EVIDENCE: E P Psi some Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn

OTHER: "that they should be seeking the Divine One"
EVIDENCE: D

COMMENTS: The TEV has "him." The text reading "God" is supported by earlier manuscripts. The reading "Divine One" seems to have been taken from verse 29.

Acts 17:28:

TEXT: "as even some of plyour poets have said"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A E P Psi 33vid 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect three lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "as even some among plyou have said"
EVIDENCE: D two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

NOTES: "as even some of our poets have said"
EVIDENCE: p74 B 614
TRANSLATIONS: none

COMMENTS: The difference between the text reading and the first reading in the notes is the omission of the word "poets." The reading "our" arose through a mistake of the ear, for in later Greek "plyour" and "our" were pronounced alike. Although it is possible that the word "poets" was added because Aratus whom Paul quotes was a poet, it is more likely that some copyists did not feel that quoting "poets" was proper, and so they deleted the word.

Acts 17:30:

TEXT: "but now he commands all men everywhere to repent"
EVIDENCE: p41 p74 Aleph(א)c D E P Psi 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect one lat syr cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "but now he tells all men everywhere to repent"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B most lat vg cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV ("declares to"/"is declaring to"/"is proclaiming to")

COMMENTS: There is only a two letter difference between the two readings. Perhaps some copyists thought that it was not seemly for God to "command" people to repent.

Acts 18:1:

TEXT: "After these things he departed from Athens and went to Corinth"
EVIDENCE: p41 p74 Aleph(א) B (D) 33 some lat vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESVn NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "After these things Paul departed from Athens and went to Corinth"
EVIDENCE: A E P Psi 049 056 0142 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect two lat syr(p,h) one cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSV* ESV* NIV* TEV* CSBn

COMMENTS: A number of copyists made the subject "Paul" explicit in this verse that begins a section. It is difficult to tell the underlying Greek text for ome English translations that do not mark added words. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 18:5:

TEXT: "Paul started completely devoting himself to the word"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B D E Psi 33 614 2495 lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Paul started completely devoting himself with the Spirit"
EVIDENCE: P 049 056 0142 945 1241 1739 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word here translated "started completely devoting himself" is variously translated "was pressed," "was compelled," or "was urged" in those translations that read "Spirit." The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 18:7:

TEXT: "went to the house of one named Titius Justus"
EVIDENCE: B* Db three lat? vg? syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "went to the house of one named Titus Justus"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) E 945 1739 three lat? vg? most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSVn NRSVn NASVn

NOTES: "went to the house of one named Justus"
EVIDENCE: A B3 D* P psi 33 614 1241 2495 Byz one lat
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NASV95n

OTHER: "went to the house of one named Titus"
EVIDENCE: some vg syr(p) one cop(north) cop(south)

COMMENTS: The less common name "Titius" seems to have been changed by copyists to the more common name "Titus." The name "Titius" was apparently omitted due to a mistake of the eye. Copyists seeing "ONOMATITITIOUIOUSTOU" ("named Titius Justus") wrote it "ONOMATIIOUSTOU" ("named Justus"), being confused by the three occurrences of "TI" and two of "IOU" in a row. Early Greek manuscripts were written in all capital letters with no spaces between words.

Acts 18:17:

TEXT: "And they all took hold of Sosthenes"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B vg cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV* ("the crowd") NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And all the Greeks took hold of Sosthenes"
EVIDENCE: D E P Psi 049 056 0120 0142 33 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz lat syr(p,h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

OTHER: "And all the Jews took hold of Sosthenes"
EVIDENCE: 307 431

COMMENTS: In order to clarify who "they all" were, copyists apparently added "the Greeks" as a subject, or less likely, two minuscules added "the Jews."

Acts 18:21:

TEXT: "and said, 'I will return again'"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B E 33 945 1739 one lat most vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "and said, 'I by all means have to keep the coming feast in Jerusalem. I will return again'"
EVIDENCE: D P Psi 614 1241 2495 Byz four lat some vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The added statement has several variations in Greek. It is similar to Acts 20:16. If it were original there is no good reason why it would have been omitted from so many early manuscripts of different kinds of ancient text.

Acts 18:25:

TEXT: "teaching accurately the things concerning Jesus"
EVIDENCE: p41vid p74vid Aleph(א) A B D E Psi 33 614 945 1241 1739 2495 lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "teaching accurately the things concerning the Lord"
EVIDENCE: P Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NEBn

COMMENTS: The word "Lord" may have been borrowed from the first part of the verse. The reading "Jesus" is found in early manuscripts of several types of ancient text.

Acts 18:26:

TEXT: "expounded to him the way of God more accurately."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B P Psi 33 614 1241 Byz Lect one lat earlier vg syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "expounded to him the way more accurately."
EVIDENCE: D two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB

NOTES: "expounded to him the way of the Lord more accurately."
EVIDENCE: E 2495 four lat later vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: none

OTHER: "expounded to him the word of the Lord more accurately."
EVIDENCE: 945 1739

COMMENTS: The words "of God" are enclosed in brackets in the UBS text, because "the way" is used alone several times to describe Christianity (see Acts 9:2; 19:9, 23; 22:4; 24:14, 22). The text reading, however, has the best manuscript support.

Acts 19:8:

TEXT: "persuading [as to] the things about the kingdom of God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A E Maj
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NASV73n
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "persuading about the kingdom of God"
EVIDENCE: B D Psi 1175
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The words "[as to] the things" are a translation of the plural definite article, which is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text, because it is missing from early manuscripts of two types of ancient text.

Acts 19:9:

TEXT: "lectured daily in the school of Tyrannus."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B E P Psi 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz three lat most vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "lectured daily in the school of Tyrannus from the fifth hour to the tenth."
EVIDENCE: D 614 four lat some vg
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn TEVn

COMMENTS: While this addition about Paul teaching from 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. may be based on oral tradition and thus be true, the fact that it is missing from early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text shows that it is not original, for there would have been no good reason for copyists to have omitted it.

Acts 19:35:

TEXT: "temple keeper of the great Artemis"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B D E vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "temple keeper of the great goddess Artemis"
EVIDENCE: H L P Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "goddess" was apparently added by later copyists to clarify who Artemis was. The text reading is supposted by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 19:37:

TEXT: "blasphemers of our goddess"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B D E2 Psi 945 1739 some lat syr(p) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "blasphemers of plyour goddess"
EVIDENCE: E* (Greek only) P 049 056 0142 614 1241 2495 Byz one lat vg syr(h) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "us" and "plyou" in Greek came to be pronounced alike, thus leading to confusion on the part of copyists. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 19:39:

TEXT: "if plyou seek anything further, it shall be settled"
EVIDENCE: p74 B 33 945 1739 two lat
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "if plyou seek anything about other [matters], it shall be settled"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A D P Psi 614 1241 2495 Byz two lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn REB?

OTHER: "if plyou seek anything about another [matter], it shall be settled"
EVIDENCE: E

COMMENTS: The difference between the two readings is that of three letters. The change was probably due to a mistake of the ear. This is the only place that the rare adverb "further" is found in the New Testament, which makes it likely that copyists would replace it with something more usual. The reading chosen for the text seems to fit the context better. The reading of manuscript E changes the plural to the singular.

Acts 20:4:

TEXT: "was accompanying him; and"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) B 33 one lat vg syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "was accompanying him as far as Asia; and"
EVIDENCE: A D E P Psi 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz three lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV CSBn

COMMENTS: It is possible that the words "as far as Asia" were omitted by copyists who noted that at least Trophimus and Aristarchus went all the way to Jerusalem with Paul (see Acts 21:29; 27:2). On the other hand it is omitted by early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text.

Acts 20:4:

TEXT: "Sopater of Beroea, [the son] of Pyrrhus"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B D E Psi (33) 945 1739 lat vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Sopater of Beroea"
EVIDENCE: P 049 056 0142 614 1241 2495 Byz syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 20:4:

TEXT: "and Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B Dc E P Psi 33 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz two lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "and Gaius of Doberus, and Timothy"
EVIDENCE: D* two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

COMMENTS: There is an apparent contradiction between Acts 19:29, which identifies Gaius as a Macedonian, and this verse, which says that Gaius was from Derbe. To remove this apparent contradiction, a few copyists changed the name "Derbe," a city of southern Galatia, to "Doberus," a Macedonian military post-town near Mt. Pangaios, on the road from Philippi. Although it is possible that two different men are named Gaius, it is more likely that Gaius was born in one area and had made his home in the other.

Acts 20:5:

TEXT: "Now these went on and were waiting"
EVIDENCE: p74 B3 D 614 some Byz lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Now these came to [Troas] and were waiting"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) Avid B* E P Psi 945 1241 1739 2495 some Byz
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: The difference in the two readings is only one letter. The text reading seems to go with the omission of "as far as Asia" in the preceding verse, although it is supported by different evidence.

Acts 20:7:

TEXT: "on the first [day] of the week, when we had gathered together to break bread"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C E vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "on the first [day] of the week, when the disciples had gathered together to break bread"
EVIDENCE: H L P Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 20:15:

TEXT: "Samos; and the [day] after that"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C E 33 1739 two lat vg cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Samos; and after remaining at Trogyllium the [day] after that"
EVIDENCE: D P 614 945 1241 2495 Byz two lat syr cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV73n NEBn CSBn

COMMENTS: While the location of Trogyllium makes a landing there possible, the fact that the words are omitted from early manuscripts of both Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text means that the words were probably added by copyists who were familiar with sailing habits.


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