A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

The Acts of the Apostles

Acts 1:19-11:23


Acts 1:14:

TEXT: "these with one accord were continuing constantly in prayer"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C* D E Psi 81 lst syr
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "these with one accord were continuing constantly in prayer and petition"
EVIDENCE: C3 33 614 945 1241 1739supp Maj
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Copyists apparently added "and petition" with imitation of Paul's often combining this with "prayer." The extra words are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 1:15:

TEXT: "Peter stood up in the midst of the brothers"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C* 33 945 vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ("believers") ESV NASV NIV ("believers") NEB REB TEV ("believers") CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples"
EVIDENCE: C3 D E Psi 81 614 1241 1739supp Maj old lat syr cop(middle)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "Peter stood up in the midst of the apostles"
EVIDENCE: p74vid

COMMENTS: The earliest manuscripts have "brothers." Because the masculine form is generic, it can refer either to only men or to both men and women. To reduce this ambiguity, copyists replaced it with "disciples." In the same way, English translations have used the old form "brethern," as well as "brothers and sisters," "brotherhood," and "believers."

Acts 1:19:

TEXT: "called in their own language Hakeldamach"
EVIDENCE: B 1175
TRANSLATIONS: NASV73n
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "called in their own language Akeldama"
EVIDENCE: C Psi Maj later vg
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ("Hakeldama") ESV NASV ("Hakeldama") NIV NEB REB TEV CSB ("Hakeldama")

OTHER: "called in their own language Acheldamach"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A 81 most lat earlier vg

OTHER: "called in their own language Akeldaimach"
EVIDENCE: D

OTHER: "called in their own language Akeldamak"
EVIDENCE: E

COMMENTS: The "ch" in Greek is usually pronounced like a fricative "k" at the back of the tongue, as in the Scottish word "loch" or the German word "ich." The Aramaic word for "field of blood" is Hakel Dema', where the apostrophe represents aleph, a glottal stop. The glottal stop makes no sound; it is the absence of sound caused by closing the glottis in the throat. Since there was no letter for it in Greek, the "ch" was sometimes used to transliterate the aleph in Aramaic words. Its omission in later manuscripts is probably due to a desire to more correctly transliterate the Aramaic words. The "H" at the beginning of the word is indicated by a breathing mark in Greek; the breathing marks are not found on early Greek manuscripts.

Acts 1:25:

TEXT: "to take the place in this ministry and apostleship"
EVIDENCE: p74 A B C* D Psi lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV [NEB? REB? ("office")] TEV? ("to serve") CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "to take the portion in this ministry and apostleship"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C3 E 33 81 614 945 1241 1739supp Maj syr
TRANSLATIONS: [KJV NKJV ("part")] [NRSVn CSBn ("share")]

COMMENTS: The text reading is found in early manuscripts of multiple text types. The reading "portion" is apparently taken from verse 17.

Acts 1:26:

TEXT: "he was counted with the eleven apostles."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C E Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739supp 2495 Byz Lect three lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "he was counted with the twelve apostles."
EVIDENCE: D (both Greek and Latin)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

COMMENTS: The Greek manuscript D takes the Greek word "with" in the sense of "among" and reads "twelve." The NEB follows it in this.

Acts 2:5:

TEXT: "there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men"
EVIDENCE: A B C D E Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739supp 2495 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "there were dwelling in Jerusalem devout men"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) one lat syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: The word "Jews" seems to have been deleted from a few manuscripts because the next phrase says they were "from every nation under heaven."

Acts 2:7:

TEXT: "And they were astounded and marveled, saying"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C* 81 some lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "And they were astounded and marveled, saying to one another"
EVIDENCE: C2 D E Psi 049 056 096 0142 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect some lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The phrase "to one another" is typical of additions made by copyists. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts.

Acts 2:23:

TEXT: "plyou fastened [to the cross] and killed through the hands of lawless [men]"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א)* A B C* 81 1739 lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "plyou fastened [to the cross] and killed, taking [him] through the hands of lawless [men]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 C3 D E Psi 33 614 945 1241 Maj syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The earliest manuscripts do not have "taking."

Acts 2:30:

TEXT: "he would seat [one] of his descendants on his throne"
EVIDENCE: p74vid Aleph(א) A B C Db 81 some lat vg syr(p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "he would raise up the Christ to seat [one] of his descendants according to the flesh on his throne"
EVIDENCE: D* {E} P Psi 049 056 0142 33 614 945 1241 {1739} 2495 Byz Lect two lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Most early manuscripts have the shorter reading found in the text. The additional words are found in several word orders. The evidence in braces omits the phrase "according to the flesh."

Acts 2:31:

TEXT: " he was neither left in Hades"
EVIDENCE: p74 p91vid Aleph(א) A B C* D 81 lat syr(p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: " his soul was neither left in Hades"
EVIDENCE: C3 E Psi 33 614 945 1241 1739 Maj syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Later copyists apparently added "his soul" from the quote in verse 27.

Acts 2:37:

TEXT: "and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles"
EVIDENCE: p74vid Aleph(א) A B C E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz two lat vg syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "and said to Peter and the apostles"
EVIDENCE: D 241 three lat some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

COMMENTS: The Greek words for "the," "rest of," and "apostles" all end in the same three letters. The omission of "rest of the" in a few manuscripts is probably due to a mistake of the eye.

Acts 2:43:

TEXT: "signs were being done through the apostles. And"
EVIDENCE: B D P 81 614 945 1241 1739 Byz Lect four lat syr(h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "signs were being done through the apostles in Jerusalem; and great fear was on all. And"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A C {Psi} 2495 one lat vg {cop(north)}
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV73n

OTHER: "signs were being done through the apostles in Jerusalem. And"
EVIDENCE: {E} 33 {one lat} syr(p)

COMMENTS: The evidence listed above in braces reads "through the hands of the apostles." Although it is possible that the words "in Jerusalem; and great fear was on all" were deliberately omitted because they were redundant, it is more likely that they were added to smooth the transition to verse 44. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 2:44:

TEXT: "all who believed were in the group and were having all things in common"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A C D E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 Byz Lect three lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "all who believed in the group were having all things in common"
EVIDENCE: B 234 2495 (include "and") two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn NEB REB

COMMENTS: The omission of "were" and "and" in a few manuscripts seems to be a stylistic improvement. The Greek words translated here "in the group" can also be translated "together." See the comments on the next entry.

Acts 2:47-3:1:

TEXT: "the Lord was adding to [their] group every day those who were being saved. Now Peter and John were going up to the temple"
EVIDENCE: p74vid Aleph(א) A B C 81 1175 three lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "the Lord was adding to the church every day those who were being saved. Now Peter and John were going together up to the temple"
EVIDENCE: {D} E P Psi 33 614 {945} 1241 {1739 2495} Byz two lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV [CSBn (v.47 "the church"; not 3:1)]

COMMENTS: The words translated "to [their] group" are literally "on the same." They form an idiom which ordinarily means "together" but several times in the scriptures have a semi-technical sense that means something like "in church fellowship" (see Acts 1:15; 2:1; I Corinthians 11:20; 14:23). In the Greek they are found at the end of verse 47. The reading "to the church" was probably a marginal explanation of the phrase that was added to the text by later copyists. The words "on the same" were then taken with chapter three in the sense of "together." The evidence listed above in braces takes "on the same" with verse 47.

Acts 3:11:

TEXT: "And as he was holding on to Peter and John"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D E 61 vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV ("the man") NEB REB TEV ("the man") CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And as the lame [man] who had been healed was holding on to Peter and John"
EVIDENCE: P Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently later copyists added a definite subject to clarify who "he" was.

Acts 3:21:

TEXT: "God spoke through the mouth of his holy prophets from an age [long ago]."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C E P Psi 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect two lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "God spoke through the mouth of his holy prophets."
EVIDENCE: D 629 three lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

COMMENTS: The words translated "from an age [long ago]" can also be taken in the sense "since the world began." Perhaps they were omitted by copyists who wondered if there had really been prophets from the beginning of the world.

Acts 3:22:

TEXT: "Moses said,"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C 81 one old lat vg syr(p) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Moses said to the fathers, "
EVIDENCE: {D} {E} P Psi 049 056 0142 {33} 614 945 1241 1739 {2495} Byz Lect {some lat} syr(h) {cop(south)}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The evidence in braces reads "to our fathers" (D) or "to plyour fathers" (E). The extra phrase is missing from the earliest manuscripts and is the sort of addition that copyists often made.

Acts 3:26:

TEXT: "God, having raised up his Servant, sent him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D E 61 vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "God, having raised up his servant Jesus, sent him"
EVIDENCE: A P 1 13 31 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Copyists were known to expand reference to Jesus by adding terms. The name "Jesus" is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 4:1:

TEXT: "the priests and the captain of the temple"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A D E P Psi 0165 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "the chief priests and the captain of the temple"
EVIDENCE: B C
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NEB REB TEVn

COMMENTS: The word "chief priests" is a much more common word in the New Testament than "priests." Since it seems to be the Jewish leaders who were persecuting the apostles (see verse 6 where the chief priests are named), it is probable that copyists changed "priests" to the frequently used and appropriate word "chief priests."

Acts 4:6:

TEXT: "Annas the high priest and Caiaphas and John and Alexander"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B E P Psi 0165 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect three lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Annas the high priest and Caiaphas and Jonathan and Alexander"
EVIDENCE: D three lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEB REBn

COMMENTS: Both John and Alexander are unknown from other historical writings. The Jewish historian Josephus (in Antiquities, XVIII, iv, 3) says that Jonathan, the son of Annas, was made high priest in A.D. 36 in succession to Caiaphas. Probably the name Jonathan was inserted from this reference.

Acts 4:8:

TEXT: "Rulers of the people and elders"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B 0165 some lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Rulers of the people and elders of Israel"
EVIDENCE: D E P Psi 049 056 0142 33 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect some lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "of Israel" are missing from the earliest manuscripts. They were perhaps added by copyists to balance the sentence structure that has "of the people."

Acts 4:10:

TEXT: "by him this [man] is standing before plyou healthy."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B D P Psi 0165 33 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect three lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "by him this [man] is standing before plyou healthy today, and by no one else."
EVIDENCE: E two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: The words "by no one else" seem to have been added from verse 12.

Acts 4:12:

TEXT: "head of the corner. And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name"
EVIDENCE: p74vid Aleph(א) A B D (omit "salvation") E P Psi 0165 33 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz four lat {two lat (omit "salvation")} most vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "head of the corner. For there is no other name"
EVIDENCE: one lat one vulgate manuscript
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: The word "salvation" may have been omitted because it seemed redundant before "saved." The text reading is found in early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text.

Acts 4:25:

TEXT: "who by the mouth of our father David, your servant, did say through the Holy Spirit, 'Why did the Gentiles'"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B E Psi 33 945 1739 one lat syr(h)?
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "who through the mouth of David, your servant, did say, 'Why did the Gentiles'"
EVIDENCE: P 614 1241 2495 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NEBn CSBn

NOTES: "who through the mouth of David, your servant, did say through the Holy Spirit, 'Why did the Gentiles'"
EVIDENCE: D (both Greek and Latin) syr(p) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn? NEB REB

OTHER: "the Holy Spirit, through the mouth of our father David, your servant, did say, 'Why did the Gentiles'"
EVIDENCE: 629 two lat vg syr(h)? some cop(north)

COMMENTS: The word order of the text reading is very confusing, "our father" preceding "through the Holy Spirit" which precedes "the mouth of David." This difficult word order probably accounts for the changes made in this passage. Several copyists omitted "our father" which seems to be grammatically stranded at the beginning of the sentence. Perhaps others questioned the theology of having God speak "through the Holy Spirit," like they are two different entities, and omitted the words "the Holy Spirit," leaving "through" to precede "the mouth of David."

Acts 4:33:

TEXT: "resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and"
EVIDENCE: p8 B P Psi 614 1241 Byz one lat syr(h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, and"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A D E 945 1739 2495 most lat vg some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV73n

OTHER: "resurrection of Jesus Christ, and"
EVIDENCE: syr(p) some cop(north)

COMMENTS: The evidence listed above shows seven different variations of word order. There was a tendency for copyists to expand the titles given to Jesus, which accounts for the addition of "Christ."

Acts 5:24:

TEXT: "when the captain of the temple and the chief priests heard"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B D 945 1739 lat (cop)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "when the priest and the captain of the temple and the chief priests heard"
EVIDENCE: E Psi 33 614 1241 Maj syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn (all translate as "high priest")

COMMENTS: While it is possible that "the priest and" was omitted as redundant, the words are missing from the earliest manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 5:28:

TEXT: "Did we not strictly command plyou not to be teaching in this name?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c D E P Psi 049 056 0142 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect some lat syr(p,h) most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "We strictly commanded plyou not to be teaching in this name?"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א)* A B most lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV

COMMENTS: The first "not" is in brackets in the UBS text. It would seem that some copyists changed the rhetorical question expecting a yes answer into a rebuke by omitting "not."

Acts 5:32:

TEXT: "we are witnesses to these things"
EVIDENCE: p74vid Aleph(א) A D* 614 four lat vg syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "we are witnesses in him to these things"
EVIDENCE: B 945 1739 one cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASVn

NOTES: "we are his witnesses to these things"
EVIDENCE: Db E P Psi 1241 2495 Byz Lect one lat
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NASV73n

COMMENTS: The word "his" is perhaps borrowed from Jesus' statement in Acts 1:8--"my witnesses." The words "in him" seem to be some sort of scribal mistake.

Acts 5:32:

TEXT: "and [so is] the Holy Spirit whom God has given to"
EVIDENCE: p45 Aleph(א) A D E P Psi 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "and God has given the Holy Spirit to"
EVIDENCE: B 436 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: The difference in the two readings is the omission of "whom" in the notes. It is only a one letter word in Greek and was perhaps accidently omitted.

Acts 5:34:

TEXT: "commanded to put the men outside"
EVIDENCE: [p74 (omit "outside")] Aleph(א) A B 614 one lat vg cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "commanded to put the apostles outside"
EVIDENCE: (D) E Psi 0140 (33) 945 (1241) 1739 Maj two lat syr(h) cop(south,middle)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently some copyists changed "men" to "apostles" to clarify who the men were. The earliest manuscripts have "men."

Acts 5:41:

TEXT: "they were considered worthy to suffer dishonor for the name"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C D 1739
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "they were considered worthy to suffer dishonor for his name"
EVIDENCE: 945 1175
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

NOTES: "they were considered worthy to suffer dishonor for the name of Jesus"
EVIDENCE: Psi 33 Maj (lat)
TRANSLATIONS: TEV CSBn

NOTES: "they were considered worthy to suffer dishonor for the name of Christ"
EVIDENCE: 1505
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

OTHER: "they were considered worthy to suffer dishonor for the name of the Lord Jesus"
EVIDENCE: E 614 1241 syr(h)

COMMENTS: Later copyists added clarification as to whom the "name" applied.

Acts 6:3:

TEXT: "Now, brothers, look for seven men"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) {A} B most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV73 [NASV2020 ("Instead")]
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Therefore, brothers, look for seven men"
EVIDENCE: C E P Psi 33 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect four lat vg syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV95 NEB REB TEV

NOTES: "Brothers, look for seven men"
EVIDENCE: p74 D (Greek only) one lat one cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NIV CSB

OTHER: "Now therefore, brothers, look for seven men"
EVIDENCE: 1175

COMMENTS: Manuscript A listed above in braces contains a synonym of the text reading which is also translated "Now" and which differs from the text by only one letter. The text reading can also be translated "But." Verses 1, 2, and 4 also begin with the word "Now." Although it is possible that copyists changed "Therefore" to "Now" to make all four verses alike, "Therefore" is so appropriate that it is much more likely that "Now" was changed to "Therefore" to produce a variation of style.

Acts 7:18:

TEXT: "there arose over Egypt another king"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C 945 1739 (two lat vg) syr(p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "there arose another king"
EVIDENCE: p45vid D E P Psi 049 056 0142 81 614 1241 2495 Byz some lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "over Egypt" are in brackets in the UBS text. While it is possible that the phrase was added from the Greek Old Testament of Exodus 1:8, it is also possible that it was omitted as redundant after Egypt was mentioned in the previous verse. It is missing from early manuscripts.

Acts 7:30:

TEXT: "an angel appeared to him"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C 81 one lat vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "an angel of the Lord appeared to him"
EVIDENCE: D E Psi 33 614 945 1241 1739 Maj two lat syr some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The clarification phrase "of the Lord" is the sort of addition that copyists often made. The earliest manuscript to include it is D, which is 20% longer in Acts than most texts due to a great number of additions by this copyist.

Acts 7:37:

TEXT: "God will raise up for plyou a prophet"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B D 81 vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "The Lord your God will raise up for plyou a prophet"
EVIDENCE: (C) {E H} P {Byz}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: A number of copyists added "Lord" from Deut. 18:15 to bring the quote closer to the Old Testament text. The manuscripts in braces add the word "our"; manuscript P and some minuscules add the word "your." The Textus Receptus has this latter reading. The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 7:43:

TEXT: "and the star of the god Raiphan"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א)c A 1175 syr
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and the star of the god Rompha"
EVIDENCE: B
TRANSLATIONS: NASV

NOTES: "and the star of the god Romphan"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn

NOTES: "and the star of the god Rephan"
EVIDENCE: C E Psi 33
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIV NEB REB TEV CSB

NOTES: "and the star of the god Rempham"
EVIDENCE: D
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn

OTHER: "and the star of the god Remphan"
EVIDENCE: 323 945 1739 Byz most lat vg

TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV
COMMENTS: Other spellings found in manuscripts are Repha, Rempha, and Rephphan. The Greek Old Testament spells the name Raiphan. All of these are variations of the Egyptian name Repa for the god Saturn. It is possible that the reading Raiphan came from an attempt to make the quote read more like the passage in Amos 5:26. It is also possible that the spellings with "e" were corrections by copyists toward the more classical spelling of the name.

Acts 7:46:

TEXT: "find a dwelling place for the house of Jacob."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א)* B D (both Greek and Latin) one cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV ESVn NASV95n NASV2020 NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "find a dwelling place for the God of Jacob."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c A C E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz four lat vg syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV95 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The expression "a dwelling place for the house of Jacob" is difficult and not clear. On the other hand, the expression "find . . . a dwelling place for the God of Jacob" is found in Psalm 132:5. Although it is possible that "God" was original here and copyists objected to this reading on the basis that God does not dwell on earth (see Solomon's prayer in I Kings 8:27), it is more probable that the difficult reading "house" was changed to the more usual expression "God."

Acts 8:5:

TEXT: "Philip went down to the city of Samaria"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NRSV ESV NASV TEV CSBn
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Philip went down to a city of Samaria"
EVIDENCE: C D E Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 Maj
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSVn ESVn NIV NEB REB TEVn CSB

COMMENTS: The definite article "the" is in brackets in the UBS text. The earliest manuscripts have the article. Perhaps it was deleted over the difficulty of identifying which city was "the city": Sabaste (the Old Testament city named Samaria) or Neapolis (modern Nablus; the Old Testament Shechem, near Mount Gerizim where the Samarians worshipped).

Acts 8:10:

TEXT: "This [man] is the power of God which is called Great."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B C D E 33 81 945 1739 lat vg syr(h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "This [man] is the great power of God."
EVIDENCE: P Psi 1241 2495 Byz Lect syr(p) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

COMMENTS: The expression "which is called" is slightly awkward, which probably accounts for its deletion by later copyists.

Acts 8:18:

TEXT: "Simon saw that the Spirit was given"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was given"
EVIDENCE: p45 p74 A C D E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn CSBn

COMMENTS: It was natural for copyists to expand "the Spirit" to "the Holy Spirit."

Acts 8:37:

TEXT: omit verse 37
EVIDENCE: p45 p74 Aleph(א) A B C P Psi 33vid 81 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect earlier vg most syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: NKJVn ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV73 NASV95n NASV2020 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: include verse 37: "And Philip said, 'If you believe with your whole heart, you may.' And he answered by saying, 'I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.'"
EVIDENCE: E 945 1739 lat later vg syr(h)margin one cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV73n NASV95 (in brackets) NASV2020n NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Verse 37 is found in Western manuscripts with many variations. It is not found in most Greek manuscripts.

Acts 9:12:

TEXT: "and in a vision he has seen a man named Ananias"
EVIDENCE: B C E P Psi (omit "man") 33 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect two lat syr one cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "and he has seen a man named Ananias"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A 81 three lat vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn NASVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "in a vision" are enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. They are found in two different places in the manuscripts that include them. It is possible that they were added by copyists as an explanation of "seen"; on the other hand, it is also possible that they were omitted as unnecessary and perhaps as stylistically harsh since "in a vision" is also used in verse 10.

Acts 10:19:

TEXT: "Behold, three men are seeking you."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A C E 33 81 945 1739 three lat vg syr(p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Behold, men are seeking you."
EVIDENCE: D P Psi 614 1241 2495 Byz four lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NIVn NEB REB TEVn

NOTES: "Behold, two men are seeking you."
EVIDENCE: B
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NASVn NIVn NEBn TEVn

COMMENTS: If the reading "two" is original, it refers to the two household servants and not the soldier, and was changed to "three" by copyists to include the guard. If no number is original, "two" or "three" were added by copyists from verse 7, depending upon whether they counted the guard. If "three" is original, it was replaced by a copyist with "two" from verse 7, and omitted accidently when copyists' eyes jumped from the end of "men" to the end of "three," which follows "men" in the Greek. On the whole, the reading "three" seems to have the best evidence, being found in early manuscripts of both Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text.

Acts 10:24:

TEXT: "on the next day he entered into Caesarea."
EVIDENCE: B D Psi 81 614 some Lect three lat vg most syr most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "on the next day they entered into Caesarea."
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A C E P 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz some Lect two lat syr(h)margin cop(north) one cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that "they" was changed to "he" by copyists because verse 23 says that "he went off," it is more likely that "he" was changed to the plural "they" because both "accompanied" before this place and "them" after it are plurals.

Acts 10:30:

TEXT: "I was praying at the ninth [hour]"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A* B C 81 945 1739 vg cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "I was fasting and praying at the ninth [hour]"
EVIDENCE: p50 A2 D E P Psi 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect lat syr cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Copyists had a tendency to add fasting to prayer.

Acts 10:32:

TEXT: "he is lodging in the house of Simon, a tanner, beside the sea."
EVIDENCE: p45 p74 Aleph(א) A B 81 vg cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "he is lodging in the house of Simon, a tanner, beside the sea, who, when he arrives, will speak to you."
EVIDENCE: C D E H L P Psi 049 056 0142 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect old lat syr cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra relative clause is missing from the earliest manuscripts.

Acts 10:36:

TEXT: "[As for] the word which he sent to the sons"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א)* C D E P Psi 945 1241 2495 Byz Lect one lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV? ESV NASV NIV TEV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "plHe sent the word to the sons"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a A B 81 614 1739 most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASVn NEB REB CSB

COMMENTS: The difference in the two readings is the inclusion or omission of "which" which is included in brackets in the UBS text. The text reading is not proper Greek but it is the sort of Greek that one would expect in a translation from Aramaic. Since the last two letters of the Greek word for "word" spell the Greek word for "which," it is possible that the word "which" was accidently added when copyists saw those letters twice. On the other hand, it is also possible that the word "which" was originally present and it was accidently omitted when copyists' eyes jumped from the end of "word" to the end of "which."

Acts 11:11:

TEXT: "stood by the house in which we were, sent to me"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B D (Latin reads "they were") one lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEBn REBn TEVn CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "stood by the house in which I was, sent to me"
EVIDENCE: p45 E P Psi 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz three lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV NEB REB TEV

COMMENTS: Since verse 5 says "I was" and the singular is used throughout, including in "sent to me," it is likely that copyists changed the plural to the singular here. The plural is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Acts 11:12:

TEXT: "go with them, making no distinction. And these"
EVIDENCE: p74 {Aleph(א)*} Aleph(א)c A B {E Psi} 33 81 945 1739 three lat? vg? syr(p)? cop?
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NEBn REBn
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "go with them, with no doubting. And these"
EVIDENCE: H L P 614 1241 2495 Byz three lat? vg? syr(p)? cop?
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB

NOTES: "go with them. And these"
EVIDENCE: p45vid D three lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB

COMMENTS: The text reading is in the aorist tense. The evidence listed under it in braces is in the present tense. The difference in the first two readings is between the active and middle voice, which affects how the phrase is translated. The reading in the notes with the middle voice ("with no doubting") seems to have been borrowed by copyists from Acts 10:20. Although it is possible that the Western omission is original and that the text reading was taken from the same passage, the fact that early manuscripts have the reading in the active voice ("making no distinction") with a little difference in meaning from the middle voice found in Acts 10:20 would indicate that it was not taken from there but rather was original.

Acts 11:13:

TEXT: "Send to Joppa and send for Simon "
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B D vg most syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Send men to Joppa and send for Simon "
EVIDENCE: F H L P Byz syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiples text types. Later copyists supplied the inplied object of the word "send."

Acts 11:20:

TEXT: "started speaking to the Greek-speaking people also"
EVIDENCE: B Db E P Psi 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSV ESV NASVn TEVn CSBn
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "started speaking to the Greeks also"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א)c A D* lat? vg? syr? cop?
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESVn NASV* NIV {NEB REB TEV ("Gentiles")} CSB*

OTHER: "started speaking to the evangelists also"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*

COMMENTS: The word translated "Greek-speaking people" can also be translated "Hellenists," that is, "Greek-speaking Jews." It is a rare word that is not found in Greek literature written before the New Testament. Therefore, it is probable that some copyists changed it to the more familiar word "Greeks." Not much weight can be put on the translations into Latin, Syriac, and Coptic because those languages have no special word for Greek-speaking people. The nonsense original reading of manuscript Sinaiticus is probably due to the fact that the next word "proclaiming the gospel" is spelled very much like "evangelists" in Greek and the reading is probably due to a mistake of the eye.

Acts 11:22:

TEXT: "they sent out Barnabas to go to Antioch"
EVIDENCE: D E Psi 33 614 945 1241 Maj some lat syr(h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "they sent out Barnabas to Antioch"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A B 81 1739 vg syr(p) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word for "to go" is in brackets in the UBS text. It is missing from early manuscripts. However, the rather unusual expression (literally, "to go through until") is used by Luke elsewhere.

Acts 11:23:

TEXT: "to keep remaining [true] to the Lord with purpose of heart"
EVIDENCE: p74 Aleph(א) A D E P 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 Byz Lect one lat syr one cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "to keep remaining [true] to [their] purpose of heart in the Lord"
EVIDENCE: B Psi most lat vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: The difference in the two readings is that the reading in the notes has the word "in" before "the Lord." Since "in the Lord" is found often in Paul's writings, but nowhere else in Acts, it is likely that "in" was borrowed from there by copyists.

Acts 11:25:

TEXT: "And [Barnabas] went to Tarsus to seek for Saul"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B some syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And Barnabas went to Tarsus to seek for Saul"
EVIDENCE: E H L P syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSV NRSV ESV NIV TEV CSBn

OTHER: "And hearing that Saul was* in Tarsus, he went seeking him"
EVIDENCE: D
COMMENTS: Many modern translations do not indicate added words, so it is difficult to tell the Greek text being followed. Later manuscripts make the subject "Barnabas" explict. Manuscript D has a longer addition here and in the next verse.


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