A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

Luke 15:16-24:53


Luke 15:16:

TEXT: "desiring to eat [his] fill of the carob pods"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B D L ƒ1 ƒ13 1241 three lat syr(c,pal) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV73n NASV2020 NEBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "desiring to fill his stomach with the carob pods"
EVIDENCE: A K P X Delta Theta Pi Psi 28 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,p,h) cop (north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn NASV95 NIV NEB REB CSBn

OTHER: "desiring to fill [his] stomach and eat [his] fill from the carob pods"
EVIDENCE: W

COMMENTS: The text reading was chosen because it is found in early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text. The word translated "to eat [his] fill" has the connotation "to be satisfied" and perhaps copyists reasoned that no one could be satisfied with just carob pods; thus they changed it to "fill his stomach."

Luke 15:21:

TEXT: "I am no longer worthy to be called your son."
EVIDENCE: p75 A K L P W Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,s,p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "I am no longer worthy to be called your son; make me like one of your hired servants."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D X 33 700 1241 one lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV73n NIV84n NEBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the second clause was omitted accidently when copyists' eyes jumped from "your" to "your" (which stands last in both clauses in Greek), it is more likely that it was added by copyists from verse 19.

Luke 16:9:

TEXT: "whenever it fails"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A B D L X Pi 1 69 some lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "whenever plyou fail"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c F P U Gamma Delta Byz most lat vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Copyists apparently changed the third person to the second person plural to fit with the earlier part of the verse. The third person is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 16:12:

TEXT: "who will give plyou that which is plyour own?"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A D K P W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "who will give plyou that which is our own?"
EVIDENCE: B L
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV73n

COMMENTS: In later times the Greek words for "plyour" and "our" were pronounced alike. Thus "our" is probably due to a mistake of the ear. In writing there is only one letter difference. Three Latin manuscripts read "my own," a reading which can be traced to Marcion.

Luke 17:3:

TEXT: "if your brother sins"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B L W Theta ƒ1 892 1241 most lat syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "if your brother sins against you"
EVIDENCE: D K N Gamma Delta Psi ƒ13 565 700 Byz some lat later vg some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV NEB CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently copyists add "against you" to make it more personal. The words are missing from earlier manuscripts. See the parellel in Matthew 18:15.

Luke 17:9:

TEXT: "He does not thank the slave because he did what was commanded, [does he]?"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א)1 B L ƒ1 1241 (cop)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "He does not thank the slave because he did what was commanded, [does he]? I think not!"
EVIDENCE: A {D} K N W Gamma Delta Theta Psi {ƒ13) 565 700 892 Byz {lat syr(p)} syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The question beginning with the Greek word implies that the answer is no; apparently some copyists felt that the question needed to be answered and so added one. The evidence in braces adds the word "him" after "commanded."

Luke 17:11:

TEXT: "he was passing through the middle of [footnote: Or, area between] Samaria and Galilee"
EVIDENCE: p75vid Aleph(א) B L
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NIV TEV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "he was passing through the middle of Samaria and Galilee"
EVIDENCE: A K N W Gamma Delta Theta Psi 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

NOTES: "he was passing up the middle of Samaria and Galilee"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1 ƒ13

COMMENTS: The original version of the CSB listed a text critical variant here. However, there is only one letter difference between the two main readings, and both are translated "through the middle of." There is a question as to whether this means going through Samaria and Galilee (KJV NKJV CSBn)or going along the border between Samaria and Galilee (ASV RSV NRSV ESV NIV TEV NEB REB CSB). The translation difference is really interpretive, not text critical. Manuscript D omits the word for "through" although the sense is the same because of the verb "pass through."

Luke 17:24:

TEXT: "so shall the Son of man be in his day."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat vg syr most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "so shall the Son of man be."
EVIDENCE: p75 B D some lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn

OTHER: "so shall be the arrival of the Son of man."
EVIDENCE: four lat (one adds "in his day") one cop(north)

COMMENTS: The words "in his day" are in brackets in the UBS text. The Greek words for "man" and "his" (which stands last in the phrase) end in the same two letters. While it is possible that copyists added this phrase because of the several references to "day" and "days" in verses 22 through 31, it is also possible that the words were accidently omitted due to a mistake of the eye. Since they are not found in this exact form elsewhere, they are retained in the text. The reading with "arrival" was taken from the parallel in Matthew 24:27.

Luke 17:33:

TEXT: "Whoever seeks to secure his life"
EVIDENCE: p75 B L
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV95 NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Whoever seeks to save his life"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A K N W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 063 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NASV2020 TEV CSBn

OTHER: "Whoever wishes to preserve his life"
EVIDENCE: D syr(s,c,p) cop(south)

COMMENTS: Apparently the rare verb "secure" found in the oldest manuscripts was replaced by copyists with the more familiar verb "save." A few copyists replaced it with the verb found at the end of the sentence.

Luke 17:36:

TEXT: omit verse 36
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 28 33 565 892 1010 Byz cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: include verse 36: "Two [men will be] in the field; one will be taken and the other will be left."
EVIDENCE: D 700 Lect ƒ13 lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that verse 36 was omitted by a mistake of the eye, when copyists' eyes jumped from "left" in verse 35 to "left" in verse 36, since it is missing from so many manuscripts, it is more likely that it was added here by other copyists from the parallel passage in Matthew 24:40.

Luke 18:11:

TEXT: "Pharisee stood and started praying these things with himself"
EVIDENCE: {p75 Aleph(א)c} A {B} K {L T} W X Delta {Theta} Pi {Psi ƒ1} ƒ13 28 33vid 565 700 {892} 1010 {1241} Byz Lect one lat {two lat vg} syr(s) (omit "these things") syr(c,p,h) {syr(pal) cop(north)}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV ESVn NASV NIV84 NEBn TEVn CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "Pharisee stood and started praying these things"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* some lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB

NOTES: "Pharisee, standing by himself, started praying these things"
EVIDENCE: D (both Greek and Latin)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV ESV NIV2011 NEBn TEV

COMMENTS: In the text reading the words "with himself" are found right after "standing" (which is translated "stood and") and right before "these things." This is very difficult to understand. If the words modify "started praying" they can be translated as above. If the words modify the aorist passive participle "standing," they may be a Semitism representing the Aramaic ethic dative which could be translated "taking his stand." Because of the difficulty in understanding the phrase, copyists either moved "with himself" next to "started praying" (the evidence is listed above in braces), omitted the words, changed them to "by himself," or omitted "these things."

Luke 18:24:

TEXT: "when Jesus saw that he was very sorrowful, he said"
EVIDENCE: A {D} K P W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 078 ƒ13 28 33vid 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect four lat {most lat} vg syr(c,s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ESV [NEB REB ("saw it")] TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "when Jesus saw him, he said"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L ƒ1 1241 syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV NASV NIV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "was very sorrowful" are in brackets in the UBS text. The evidence listed above in braces reads ". . . he saw . . . Jesus said." Actually the evidence for the text shows three different word orders for the name "Jesus," although the words in question are always found in the same position. It is possible that the words "was very sorrowful" were added from verse 23, but it is also possible that they were deleted by copyists as being repetitious. They are retained in the text because Luke elsewhere uses this same kind of repetition.

Luke 19:15:

TEXT: "he might know what they had gained by trading."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Psi two lat syr(c,s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "he might know who had gained what by trading."
EVIDENCE: A K W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 (omit "what") Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: [KJV NKJV ("every man")] [NEB REB ("each")]

COMMENTS: The difference between the two readings is the absence or presence of the word "who" (translated "every" or "each"). Although it is possible that "who" was omitted because of a mistake of the eye (in Greek the words for "who" and "what" stand together and are spelled almost alike--only one letter difference), it is also possible that "who" was added by copyists to make the narrative more precise. It is omitted from the text because it is missing from early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text.

Luke 19:42:

TEXT: "had known in this day"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B D L Theta Psi ƒ1 565 892 1241 some lat syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "had known in this your day"
EVIDENCE: K W Delta Pi ƒ13 28 33vid 700 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn

COMMENTS: Since there seems to be no reason for a mistake of the eye here, it is more likely that copyists would have inserted "your" than deleted it.

Luke 19:42:

TEXT: "the things [that make] for peace!"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Theta one syr(pal) one cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "the things [that make] for your peace!"
EVIDENCE: A K W Delta Pi Psi ƒ1 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect one lat most syr most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NIV

OTHER: "the things [that make] for peace for you!"
EVIDENCE: D ƒ13 most lat vg

COMMENTS: Since there seems to be no reason for a mistake of the eye here, it is more likely that copyists would have inserted "your" or "for you" than deleted it.

Luke 19:45:

TEXT: "began driving out those who were selling"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L 1 1241 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "began driving out those who were selling in it and buying"
EVIDENCE: A K W Gamma Delta Theta 33 565 700 892 Byz most lat syr(s,c,p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "began driving out those who were selling and buying"
EVIDENCE: C N Psi ƒ13
OTHER: "began driving out those who were selling in it and buying, and he pointed out the tables of the moneychangers and the seats of those who were selling doves"
EVIDENCE: D old lat syr(h)

COMMENTS: The additional words seem to have been added by copyists from the parallels in Matthew 21:12 and Mark 11:15.

Luke 20:13:

TEXT: "perhaps they will respect him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D L Q Psi ƒ1 33 892 1241 old lat syr(s,c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "perhaps seeing him they will respect [him]"
EVIDENCE: A K N W Gamma Delta Theta ƒ13 565 700 Byz most lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 20:23-24:

TEXT: "he said to them, "Show me a denarius"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L 0266vid 892 1241 one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "he said to them, "Why are you testing me? Show me a denarius"
EVIDENCE: A C D K N P W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ13 565 700 Byz most lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra clause was apparently borrowed by copyists from the parallels in Matthew 22:18 and Mark 12:15. Manuscript C adds "hypocrites" also with the Matthew passage.

Luke 20:30:

TEXT: "and the second"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L 0266 892 1241 one lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV (adds: married the woman) CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and the second took the wife and so he died childless"
EVIDENCE: A K P W Gamma Delta (Theta) Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565supp 700 Byz most lat syr(c) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra words seem to have been added by copyists for clarification from verse 29, perhaps influenced by Mark 12:21. The text reading without the addition is supported by early manuscripts of multiple taxt types.

Luke 20:45:

TEXT: "And in the hearing of all the people he said to his disciples"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A K L P W Delta Theta Pi Psi 063 ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz most lat vg syr(c,s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And in the hearing of all the people he said to the disciples"
EVIDENCE: B D two lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV NASV

COMMENTS: The Greek word for "his" is in brackets in the UBS text. Although it is missing from two early manuscripts of different text types and may have been borrowed from Matthew 23:1, the majority of the UBS committee decided to keep it in the text due to the great number of manuscripts (including early ones) that contain it.

Luke 21:19:

TEXT: "By plyour endurance plyou must gain plyour lives."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) D K L W X Delta Pi Psi ƒ1 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect two lat some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "By plyour endurance plyou will gain plyour lives."
EVIDENCE: A B Theta ƒ13 33 most lat vg syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The difference in Greek between "must gain" and "will gain" is only that of one vowel. Since several future tenses are used in previous verses, it is more likely that copyists changed the aorist imperative to the future indicative than visa versa.

Luke 21:36:

TEXT: "that plyou may have strength to escape"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L T (W) Psi 070 ƒ1 33 892 1241 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "that plyou may be considered worthy to escape"
EVIDENCE: A C D K N Gamma Delta Theta ƒ13 700 Byz lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The earlier reading is "have strength."

Luke 21:38:

TEXT: end chapter 21 with verse 38
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 0179 ƒ1 four of ƒ13 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: insert John 7:53-8:11 following verse 38
EVIDENCE: eight of the twelve manuscripts in ƒ13
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: This section was added here probably because the situation seemed similar to that described in John 8:1-2.

Luke 22:16:

TEXT: "I shall not eat it until it is fulfilled"
EVIDENCE: p75vid Aleph(א) A B L Theta ƒ1 1241 one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV2020 NEBn REBn TEV CSBn
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "I shall not eat it again until it is fulfilled"
EVIDENCE: C D K P W X Delta Pi Psi ƒ13 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 NIV NEB REB CSB

COMMENTS: The word "not" seems to have been strengthened to "not again" on the pattern of Mark 14:25, especially since it seems that Christ did eat this meal.

Luke 22:19-20:

TEXT: "'This is my body which is given for plyou. Keep doing this in memory of me.' And in a similar way [he took] the cup after supper, saying, 'This cup [is] the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for plyou. But behold, the hand of the one betraying me'"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B C K L Tvid W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(s) (vv. 19,20a,17,20b,18) syr(p) (omit vv. 17-18) syr(h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV1n RSV2 NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "'This is my body. But behold, the hand of the one betraying me'"
EVIDENCE: D some lat {two lat syr(c) (v. 19 before v. 17)}
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV1 RSV2n NRSVm ESVm NASV73n NEB REB TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The order of cup--bread--cup for the last supper gave problems to several copyists who did not realize that the first cup was part of the passover meal and not part of the institution of the Lord's Supper. They solved this problem either by omitting verses 19b-20 or verses 17-18. Two Latin manuscripts and two Syrian texts also rearranged the text to have the bread first.

Luke 22:31:

TEXT: "'Simon, Simon"
EVIDENCE: p75 B L T 1241 syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "But the Lord said, 'Simon, Simon"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A D K N Q W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 Byz lat syr(c,p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the introductory phrase was omitted by copyists as redundant, it is missing from the earliest manuscripts.

Luke 22:34:

TEXT: "a rooster will not crow today until you three times deny that you know me"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B (D K) L T Theta ƒ13 892 (1241)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "a rooster will not crow today before you three times deny that you know me"
EVIDENCE: A N Q W Gamma Delta Psi ƒ1 565 700 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "until" is found in early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 22:43-44:

TEXT: include verses 43 and 44: " And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him. And being in agony he started praying more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b D K L X Delta Theta Pi Psi 0171 ƒ1 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz most lat vg syr(c,p,h,pal) some cop(north) (with asterisks)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV1 RSV2n RSVCE NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: omit verses 43 and 44
EVIDENCE: p69vid p75 Aleph(א)a A B T W some Lect one lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV1n RSV2 RSVCEn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

OTHER: include verses 43 and 44 after Matthew 26:39 instead of here
EVIDENCE: ƒ13 some Lect (also the first part of verse 45)

COMMENTS: Verses 43 and 44 are enclosed by double brackets in the UBS text, which means that the UBS Textual Committee felt that they were not originally written by Luke. The fact that they are quoted by second century writers such as Justin Martyr and Irenaeus and are found in the second century Diatessaron, an early harmony of the four gospels by Tatian, is proof that they are quite old. While it is possible that they might have been omitted by copyists who did not approve of verses that showed such human weakness of Jesus, the fact that they are missing from several early manuscripts of Luke would seem to indicate that they were not originally present. However, their age indicates that they may be regarded as true scripture which has come to find its place here in the canon.

Luke 22:62:

TEXT: include verse 62: "And he went outside and wept bitterly."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B D K L T W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 0124 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: omit verse 62
EVIDENCE: 0171vid some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the verse may have been copied exactly from the parallel in Matthew 26:75, the fact that it is included in so many manuscripts indicates that it was probably accidently omitted when copyists' eyes jumped from the "And" at the beginning of the verse to the "And" at the beginning of the next verse.

Luke 22:64:

TEXT: "and blindfolding him, they were questioning [him], saying"
EVIDENCE: p75 {Aleph(א)} B K L T {1241} cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and blindfolding him, they were hitting his face and questioning him, saying"
EVIDENCE: A (D) N W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ13 565 700 892 Byz most lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "and blindfolding his face, they were questioning him, saying"
EVIDENCE: 070 ƒ1 (some lat) syr(s,c,p) cop(south)

COMMENTS: The additional words, similar to Matthew 26:67 and Mark 14:65, seem to be a natural expansion and clarification. They are missing from the earliest manuscripts. The evidence in braces supplies the second "him"; manuscript Aleph omits the first one.

Luke 22:68:

TEXT: "plyou will not answer."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B L T 1241 cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "plyou will not answer me or release [me]."
EVIDENCE: A D K W X Delta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 565 700 892 (omit "me") 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

OTHER: "plyou will not answer me."
EVIDENCE: Theta ƒ1 cop(south)

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the words "me or release" were accidently omitted through a mistake of the eye (the Greek words for "answer" and "release" end with the same three letters), it is not possible that just the words "or release" were accidently omitted that way. Therefore the UBS Textual Committee felt that both "me" and "me or release" were early natural additions by copyists.

Luke 23:6:

TEXT: "Now when Pilate heard [this]"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B L T 070 1241 cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Now when Pilate heard 'Galilee'"
EVIDENCE: A D K N W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 Byz lat syr cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "Galilee" seems to be a natural expansion of the text, supplying an overt object to the verb "heard." It is missing from the earliest manuscripts.

Luke 23:15:

TEXT: "And neither did Herod, for he sent him back to us."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B K L T Theta Pi 0124 892 1241 two lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And neither did Herod, for I sent plyou over to him."
EVIDENCE: A D W X Delta Psi ƒ1 28 565 700 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn

OTHER: "And neither did Herod, for he sent him back to plyou."
EVIDENCE: ƒ13

OTHER: "And neither did Herod, for I sent him over to him."
EVIDENCE: syr(c,s,p)

COMMENTS: Another variation exists in later manuscripts ("I sent him to plyou"). Of all these variations, only two commend themselves, and the text reading has the stronger evidence supporting it. Since in later Greek, the words for "plyou" and "us" sounded alike, the evidence of family 13 may be taken as supporting the text reading.

Luke 23:17:

TEXT: omit verse 17
EVIDENCE: p75 A B K L T Pi 0124 892* 1241 one lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: include verse 17: "Now he had an obligation to release one [prisoner] to them at the feast."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) W X Delta {Theta Psi} ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 {892margin} 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

NOTES: include verse 17 after verse 19
EVIDENCE: {D (both Greek and Latin)} syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: The evidence listed above in braces has a different word order for verse 17. Although it is possible that the verse was accidently omitted through a mistake of the eye (verse 17 and verse 18 both begin with the same three letters), its omission from several early manuscripts as well as the different positions and word orders in which it is found would indicate that it was added by copyists based on the parallels in Matthew 27:15 and Mark 15:6.

Luke 23:23:

TEXT: "And their voices started prevailing"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B L 070 1241 most lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And their voices and [those] of the chief priests started prevailing"
EVIDENCE: A D K N P W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 Byz (two lat) syr some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the words "and [those] of the chief priests" were omitted by a mistake of the eye ("their" and "chief priests" end in the same two letters), it is more likely that this is a clarifying expression added by copyists. The extra words are missing from the earliest manuscripts.

Luke 23:34:

TEXT: "one on the left. And Jesus was saying, 'Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing.' Now to divide his clothes"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,c A C Db E K L X Delta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,p,h,pal) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "one on the left. Now to divide his clothes"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א)a B D* W Theta 0124 1241 two lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words that are omitted are enclosed by double brackets in the UBS text, which means that the UBS Textual Committee felt that they were not originally written by Luke. The fact that they are quoted by second century writers such as Justin Martyr and Irenaeus and are found in the second century Diatessaron, an early harmony of the four gospels by Tatian, is proof that they are quite old. But unless one says that they were omitted by copyists who thought that the destruction of Jerusalem meant that Jesus' prayer was unanswered, the fact that they are missing from several early manuscripts of different types of ancient text would seem to indicate that they were not originally present. However, their age indicates that they may be regarded as true scripture which has come to find its place here in the canon.

Luke 23:38:

TEXT: "an inscription over him, 'This [is] the King'"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א)a B L 0124 1241 most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "an inscription written over him in letters of Greek and Latin and Hebrew, 'This [is] the King'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b (omit "written") A C3 D K W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north) (omit "written")
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

OTHER: "an inscription written over him, 'This [is] the King'"
EVIDENCE: C* one lat syr(c,s)

COMMENTS: The additional words are found with several different word orders and with two different words being used for "written." This combined with their omission from several early manuscripts would indicate that they were added by copyists from John 19:20.

Luke 23:42:

TEXT: "remember me whenever you come into your kingdom."
EVIDENCE: p75 B L most lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV73n* NASV2020 NIV [NEB REB ("to your throne")] TEV? CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "remember me, Lord, whenever you come in your kingdom."
EVIDENCE: {Aleph(א)} A {C*} C2 K W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 0124 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: (with Lord and into) KJV NKJV CBSn

TRANSLATIONS: (without Lord and with in) ASV RSVn NRSVn NASV95 NIVn ("with your kingly power") NEBn ("in royal power")TEV? ("as King")

OTHER: "remember me in the day of your coming."
EVIDENCE: D (both Greek and Latin)

COMMENTS: While it is possible that "into" is a scribal correction introduced as fitting better with "come" than "in," the UBS Textual Committee felt that the reading "into" fit better with Luke's theology (see Luke 24:26). The evidence in braces in the notes omits "Lord."

Luke 23:45:

TEXT: "while the sun['s light] failed."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B C*vid L 0124 some Lect cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "while the sun was darkened."
EVIDENCE: A C3 D K W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz some Lect lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn CSBn

OTHER: "while the sun['s light] failed and the sun was darkened."
EVIDENCE: C2vid

OTHER: omit the phrase
EVIDENCE: 33

COMMENTS: Since the text reading can also be translated "the sun was eclipsed" and no solar eclipse was possible at the time of the full moon that marked the Passover feast, the reading "the sun was darkened" seems to be a scribal correction to remove a possible mistake.

Luke 24:1:

TEXT: "they went to the tomb, carrying the spices which they had prepared."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B C* L 33 most lat some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "they went to the tomb, carrying the spices which they had prepared, and some [went] with them."
EVIDENCE: A C3 K W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 1241 Byz three lat (syr some cop(north))
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

NOTES: "they went to the tomb, carrying the spices which they had prepared, and some [went] with them. But they were saying among themselves, 'Who then will roll away the stone."
EVIDENCE: D 070 [add "for us"] (one lat) cop(south)

COMMENTS: The extra phrase seems to be an addition by copyists who were concerned about who would help roll away the stone. The word translated "some" can be either masculine or feminine; Greek masculine includes both men and women. The additional words in manuscripts D, 070 and others apparently were added from Mark 16:3.

Luke 24:3:

TEXT: "did not find the body of the Lord Jesus."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 0124 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(h,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESV NASV NIV REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "did not find the body."
EVIDENCE: D some lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV NEB

OTHER: "did not find the body of Jesus."
EVIDENCE: 1241 syr(c,s,p) one cop(north) one cop(south)

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the words "of the Lord Jesus" is a natural expansion, the weight of evidence, combined with the fact that there is only one minor variation, would indicate that the words were original. The word "Lord" may have been omitted from a few manuscripts either accidently (it ends with the same two letters as "the") or when copyists changed it to be like Luke 23:52. Luke elsewhere uses "the Lord Jesus" in Acts 1:21; 4:33; and 8:16 of the risen Christ.

Luke 24:6:

TEXT: "among the dead? He is not here, but has been raised. Remember how he spoke to plyou"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B C3 K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 0124 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat vg syr(c,s,h,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESV NASV NEBn REBn CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "among the dead? Remember how he spoke to plyou"
EVIDENCE: D some lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSVn NASVn NEB REB

OTHER: "among the dead? He is not here; he has been raised. Remember how he spoke to plyou"
EVIDENCE: C* syr(p) one cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NIV TEV

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the missing sentence was derived by copyists from similar sentences in the parallels of Matthew 28:6 and Mark 16:6, the fact that neither the text reading nor the minor variations of it read exactly like either of those parallels indicates that the text reading is original. It is supported by most early manuscripts of several types of ancient text.

Luke 24:9:

TEXT: "and returning from the tomb they told all these things"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 0124 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "and returning they told all these things"
EVIDENCE: D some lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the words "from the tomb" were added by copyists from the parallels in Matthew 28:8 and Mark 16:8, it is also possible that the words were accidently omitted by a mistake of the eye (the Greek word for "they told" begins with the same two letters as "from"). The fact that the words are found in most early manuscripts of several types of ancient text indicates that they are original.

Luke 24:12:

TEXT: include verse 12: "But Peter rose and ran to the tomb. And stooping to look in, he saw* the linen cloths by themselves. And he went back to his [home], marveling at what had happened."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B W 070 syr(s,c) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSVn RSVCE NRSV ESV NASV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

TEXT: include verse 12: "But Peter rose and ran to the tomb. And stooping to look in, he saw* the linen cloths lying by themselves. And he went back to his [home], marveling at what had happened."
EVIDENCE: A K (L) X Gamma Delta Theta Pi Psi 079 0124 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV CSBn
NOTES: omit verse 12
EVIDENCE: D some lat some syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSVn NASVn NEB REB TEVn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that verse 12 was added by copyists as a synopsis of John 20:3, 5, 6, and 10, the likelihood of such happening without variations in so many manuscripts is very small. The fact that the verse is found in most early manuscripts of several types of ancient text indicates that it is original.

Luke 24:13:

TEXT: "which was sixty stades distance"
EVIDENCE: p75 A B D K2 L W X Delta Psi 0124 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33vid 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "which was a hundred and sixty stades distance"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) K* Theta Pi 079vid syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn

OTHER: "which was seven stades distance"
EVIDENCE: one lat

COMMENTS: The word "hundred" was probably added by copyists because many ancient teachers identified Emmaus with modern Nicopolis, which is 176 stades from Jerusalem. The reading "seven" probably came from the fact that sixty stades is about seven miles, with the copyist becoming mixed up and giving the number of miles with the measure in stades.

Luke 24:17:

TEXT: "'What [are] these words that plyou are exchanging with one another as plyou are walking along?' And they stood still, looking sad."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A* B (L) 070 one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "'What [are] these words that plyou are exchanging with one another as plyou are walking along and are looking sad?'"
EVIDENCE: Ac K N P W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz most lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn

OTHER: "'What [are] these words that plyou are exchanging with one another as plyou are walking along looking sad?'"
EVIDENCE: D
COMMENTS: The earliest manuscripts contain the word "they stood still" which apparently did not make sense to copyists who took it as part of what Jesus was saying.

Luke 24:19:

TEXT: "Jesus the Nazarene"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B L 070 most lat vg cop(north)?
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Jesus the Nazorean"
EVIDENCE: A D K N P W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz (some lat) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

COMMENTS: There are two spelling of the term for someone from the city of Nazareth; both are usually spelled Nazarene in many English translations, coming from the Latin. Here the less common spelling in Greek of "Nazarene" has been replaced by most copyists with the more common spelling in Greek of "Nazorean."

Luke 24:32:

TEXT: "our hearts burning within us while he was speaking to us"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A K L P W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010margin 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg (omit "to us") syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "our hearts burning while he was speaking to us"
EVIDENCE: p75 B D (both Greek and Latin) {two lat syr(c,s) (also omit "while he was speaking to us")}
TRANSLATIONS: RSV2n NRSVn NEB REB

COMMENTS: The words "within us" are in brackets in the UBS text because they are missing from early manuscripts of two different kinds of ancient text. The are retained in the text because it is possible that they were omitted from those manuscripts because they seem to be redundant following "our."

Luke 24:36:

TEXT: "stood in their midst and said to them, 'Peace to plyou.'"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B K L X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect syr(c,s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn RSVCE NRSV ESV NASV73n NASV95 NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "stood in their midst."
EVIDENCE: D some lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV RSVCEn NRSVn NASV73 NEB REB TEVn

OTHER: "stood in their midst and said to them, 'Peace to plyou. It is I; quit being afraid.'"
EVIDENCE: P W 1241 three lat vg syr(p,h,pal) some cop(north)

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the words "and said to them, 'Peace to plyou'" were added by copyists from the parallel in John 20:19, the fact that they are found in so many early manuscripts of several types of ancient text indicates that they are original. The words "It is I; quit being afraid" were apparently added by copyists from the time that the disciples saw Jesus walking on the water and thought that he was a ghost, as found in Matthew 14:27, Mark 6:50, and John 6:20.

Luke 24:40:

TEXT: include verse 40: "And when he had said this, he showed them [his] hands and [his] feet."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn RSVCE NRSV ESV NASV73n NASV95 NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: omit verse 40
EVIDENCE: D some lat syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV RSVCEn NRSVn NASV73 NEB REB TEVn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that this verse was added by copyists from John 20:20 with "his side" changed to "his feet" to match verse 39, the fact that the verse is found in early manuscripts of several types of ancient text indicates that it is original.

Luke 24:42:

TEXT: "a piece of broiled fish, and he took [it]"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B D L W Pi two lat syr(s) some cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "a piece of broiled fish and [some] of a honeycomb, and he took [it]"
EVIDENCE: K X Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,p,h+,pal) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the words "and of a honeycomb" were accidently omitted when copyists' eyes jumped from "and" to "and," the fact that these words are missing from early manuscripts of several types of ancient text makes it unlikely that they are original. Since some parts of the early church used honey in the celebration of the Lord's Supper and the baptismal ceremony, perhaps they were added to give scriptural support to this liturgical practice.

Luke 24:46:

TEXT: "Thus it is written for the Christ to suffer and rise"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B C* D L most old lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Thus it is written and thus it was nceessary for the Christ to suffer and rise"
EVIDENCE: A C2vid K N W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz some lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently copyists added "and thus it was necessary" for clarification. The shorter readings of the text is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 24:47:

TEXT: "repentance for the forgiveness of sins"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B syr(p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn ESVn NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "repentance and the forgiveness of sins"
EVIDENCE: A C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(s,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIV TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: Luke uses both expressions: "repentance for forgiveness" in Luke 3:3 and "repentance and forgiveness" in Acts 5:31. The UBS Textual Committee decided that copyists would have been more likely to have changed "for" (literally, "into") to "and" than visa versa, because of the second use of "into" (often translated "to") in the prepositional phrase "to all nations" later on in the verse.

Luke 24:49:

TEXT: "stay in the city"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B C* D L most lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "stay in the city of Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: A C2 K W Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz some lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The name Jerusalem was apparently added by copyists for clarification. It is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 24:51:

TEXT: "he parted from them and was carried up into heaven."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א)c A B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV1n RSV2 NRSV ESV NASV73n NASV95 NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "he parted from them."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* D some lat syr(s) ("was lifted up")
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV1 RSV2n NRSVn NASV73 NEB REB TEVn

COMMENTS: The Sinaitic Syriac reading seems to be a condensation of the two phrases rather than an omission of the second. The omission of "and was carried up into heaven" in manuscript Aleph(א)* can be explained by a mistake of the eye, when the copyist's eye jumped from "and" to "and." It is also possible to explain the omission from manuscript D and the Latin manuscripts as a mistake of the eye when copyists' eyes jumped from "them" to "him" in verse 52 (there is only one letter difference between these words in Greek). At any rate, the fact that the words are found in most early manuscripts of several types of ancient text indicates that they are original.

Luke 24:52:

TEXT: "And they worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 (omit "him") 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg (omit "him") syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn RSVCE NRSV ESV NASV73n NASV95 NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "And they returned to Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: D some lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV RSVCEn NRSVn NASV73 NEB REB

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the reference to worship could have been added by copyists from Matthew 28:17, this does not seem likely. The omission may have been caused by a mistake of the eye when copyists' eyes jumped from "them" in verse 51 to "him" (there is only one letter difference between these words in Greek). At any rate, the fact that the words are found in most early manuscripts of several types of ancient text indicates that they are original.

Luke 24:53:

TEXT: "and were continually in the temple blessing God."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B C* L syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV73n TEV ("giving thanks"
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "and were continually in the temple praising and blessing God."
EVIDENCE: A C2 K W X Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

NOTES: "and were continually in the temple praising God."
EVIDENCE: D old lat
TRANSLATIONS: NASV* NIV* NEB? REB? CSB*

COMMENTS: The earliest manuscripts only have "blessing"; the Western tradition understood this as "praising." A number of copyists used both words rather than deciding between the two. A number of English translations use the word "praising" to translate the Greek word for "blessing"; they are marked with an asterisk.

Luke 24:53:

TEXT: "blessing God."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) C* D L W 1 33 old lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "blessing God. Amen."
EVIDENCE: A B C2 K X Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz some lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

OTHER: "blessing God. Amen." plus John 8:3-11
EVIDENCE: 1333c
COMMENTS: Copyists often added their personal Amen when finished copying a book.


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