A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

The Gospel According to Luke

Luke 1:17-9:2


Luke 1:17:

TEXT: "he will go before him in the spirit"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B3 D K W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "he will come [near] before him in the spirit"
EVIDENCE: B* C L ƒ13
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: The difference between the two words is that of one letter. The word "come [near] before" is the much more common word and the less frequently used word "go before" was probably misread by copyists.

Luke 1:28:

TEXT: "the Lord [is] with you!"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W Psi ƒ1 565 700 1241 syr(pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "the Lord [is] with you! Blessed are you among women!"
EVIDENCE: A C D K X Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 892 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "Blessed are you among women!" seem to have been added here from verse 42. There is no good reason why they should have been omitted if they were original.

Luke 1:35:

TEXT: "the holy [child] to be born will also be called"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C3 D K L W X Delta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat early vg syr(h) some syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "the holy [child] to be born of you will also be called"
EVIDENCE: C* Theta ƒ1 33 four lat later vg syr(p) ("in you") some syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: The words "of you" were apparently added here by copyists to balance the use of "you" in the two previous clauses.

Luke 1:37:

TEXT: "nothing from God will be impossible."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B D L W Xi 565
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NEB REB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "with God nothing will be impossible."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c A C K Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The difference in the two readings is whether the word "God" is in the genitive case (which gives the preposition the meaning "from") or in the dative case (which gives the preposition the meaning "with"). Since the same sentence is found in Genesis 18:14 in the Greek Old Testament using the dative case, it is likely that the genitive case is original here, and copyists changed the word to be more like the Old Testament reading. The two readings are so similar that the translations cannot be used as evidence here.

Luke 1:46:

TEXT: "And Mary said, 'My soul magnifies the Lord'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D K L W Delta Theta Xi Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "And Elizabeth said, 'My soul magnifies the Lord'"
EVIDENCE: three lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: Although there is a possibility that the original read "and she said" omitting any name, the fact that so many manuscripts read "Mary" would seem to indicate that this was original. The reading "Elizabeth" perhaps comes from a few Latin copyists who continued Elizabeth's speech that she gave when she was filled with the Holy Spirit.

Luke 1:66:

TEXT: "'What then will this child be?' For indeed the hand of the Lord was with him."
EVIDENCE: p4vid Aleph(א) A B C K L W Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "'What then will this child be? For indeed the hand of the Lord [is] with him.'"
EVIDENCE: D some lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: Some copyists left out the word "was" and thus changed Luke's comment to a present tense statement by the people about John. Luke often makes such comments (see Luke 2:50; 3:15; 7:39; 16:14; 20:20; 23:12).

Luke 1:78:

TEXT: "the Sunrise from on high will visit us"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B L W Theta syr(s,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "the Sunrise from on high has visited us"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c A C D K Delta Xi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz lat vg syr(h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the aorist tense (that is, past tense) was changed to a future because at the time that this was originally said, Christ had not yet been born, it is more likely that the future was changed to an aorist to agree with "has visited" in verse 68.

Luke 2:11:

TEXT: "a Savior, who is Christ the Lord."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B D K L P W ("the Lord Christ") Delta Theta Xi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,p) ("the Lord Christ") most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "a Savior, who is the Lord's Christ."
EVIDENCE: two lat syr(h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: It seems that the unusual expression "Christ the Lord" has been changed by some copyists to a more usual one. Other minor variations also exist using "Jesus" or "Savior."

Luke 2:14:

TEXT: "on earth peace among men with whom he is pleased!"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A B* D W lat vg cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "on earth peace, good will among men!"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c B3 K L P Delta Theta Xi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr(s,h,pal) syr(p) ("good hope to men") cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEBn CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading can also be translated "on earth peace among men of good will," but the sense seems to be "men of [God's] good pleasure." This is a Semitic expression found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The difference between the two readings is only one of one letter, the Greek letter "sigma" or "s" at the end of the word. Where the word occurs at the end of a line, the letter "sigma" is written as a little raised "c" which it would be possible for a copyist to overlook. Therefore, the change from "among men of good pleasure" to "good pleasure among men" may have happened either accidently (when the "sigma" was overlooked) or deliberately (by copyists who did not understand that in the Semitic expression "men of good pleasure" the good pleasure was God's).

Luke 2:33:

TEXT: "his father and mother were marveling"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L W 1 700 1241 most vg syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Joseph and his mother were marveling"
EVIDENCE: A K N Theta Psi ƒ13 33 565 892 Byz old lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: In order to make clear that Joseph was not Jesus' biological father, apparently a number of copyists replaced "his father" with "Joseph." The reading "his father" is found in early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 2:38:

TEXT: "to all who were waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B W Xi 1 565* most lat syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "to all who were waiting for the redemption in Jerusalem"
EVIDENCE: A D K L N Gamma Delta Theta Psi 0130 ƒ13 33 565c 700 892 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Since the Greek word for Jerusalem takes the same form no matter what case it is in, some copyists apparently added the word "in" to make one possible meaning clear. The text reading could be translated "in" as well as "of" although that is not as likely. Some Latin manuscripts as well as the later Vulgate read "Israel" rather than "Jerusalem."

Luke 2:43:

TEXT: "his parents did not know [it]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L W Theta ƒ1 33 700 1241 most lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Joseph and his mother did not know [it]"
EVIDENCE: A C K N Gamma Delta Psi 0130 ƒ13 565 892 Byz old lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: In order to make clear that Joseph was not Jesus' biological father, apparently a number of copyists replaced "his parents" with "Joseph and his mother." The reading "his parents" is found in early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 3:22:

TEXT: "You are my beloved son; with you I am well pleased."
EVIDENCE: p4 Aleph(א) A B K L W {X} Delta Theta Pi Psi 0124 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat {one lat} vg syr(h) {syr(s,p,pal) some cop(north)} other cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "You are my beloved son; today I have fathered you."
EVIDENCE: D most lat
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the text reading was borrowed from the parallel in Mark 1:11, it seems more likely that the footnote reading was taken from Psalm 2:7. Some of the evidence for the text (listed in braces above) uses the wording of Matthew 3:17 ("This is . . . with whom . . . ."), either partially or a few times wholly.

Luke 3:32:

TEXT: "Boaz, the [son] of Sala"
EVIDENCE: p4 Aleph(א)* B syr(s,pal) cop(south) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIVn CSBn
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Boaz, the [son] of Salmon"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c A D K L X Delta Theta Pi Psi 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NRSVn NASV* NIV NEB TEV CSB

OTHER: "Boaz, the [son] of Salman"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1 ƒ13
TRANSLATIONS: REB ("Salma")

COMMENTS: The name "Sala" seems to be a Syriac form of the Hebrew name "Salmon." There is a tradition that Luke was a Syrian from Antioch. If this is so, he may well have used the Syriac form of the name and copyists changed it to the Hebrew form to agree with Matthew 1:4-5 and the Old Testament spelling. "Salman" is a variant spelling of "Salmon" in Old Testament Greek manuscripts.

Luke 3:33:

TEXT: "the [son] of Amminadab, the [son] of Admin, the [son] of Arni"
EVIDENCE: p4vid Aleph(א)c L X ƒ13 cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV ("Ram" for "Arni") NIV2011n NEBn REBn TEV CSBn
CERTAINTY: C

OTHER: "the [son] of Adam, the [son] of Admin, the [son] of Arni"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* ms1241 cop(south)

OTHER: "the [son] of Aminadam, the [son] of Aram, the [son] of Almei, the [son] of Arni"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1

NOTES: "the [son] of Amminadab, the [son] of Aram, the [son] of Admin, the [son] of Arni"
EVIDENCE: Theta
NOTES: "the [son] of Amminadab, the [son] of Aram, the [son] of Joram"
EVIDENCE: K Delta Psi 28 700 892 1010 some Byz Lect two lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

NOTES: "the [son] of Amminadab, the [son] of Aram"
EVIDENCE: A D Pi 33 565 some Byz most lat vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NRSVn NIV ("Ram" for "Aram") NEBn CSB ("Ram" for "Aram")

NOTES: "the [son] of Admin, the [son] of Arni"
EVIDENCE: B
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

OTHER: "the [son] of Adam, the [son] of Arni"
EVIDENCE: syr(s)

NOTES: "the [son] of Amminadab, the [son] of Arni"
EVIDENCE: none
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NEB REB

COMMENTS: There are five other major variations of readings, plus other minor spelling and word order variations. Out of this bewildering number of readings the UBS Textual Committee chose a reading that was used at an early period by the church at Alexandria.

Luke 4:4:

TEXT: "Man shall not live on bread alone."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W 1241 syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Man shall not live on bread alone but on every word of God."
EVIDENCE: A D K Gamma Delta Theta Psi 0102 ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 Byz lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional words are apparently added by copyists from the Western text (D lat) of Matthew 4:4.

Luke 4:5:

TEXT: "And [the devil] led him up"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B L W 1241 some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And the devil led him up to a high mountain"
EVIDENCE: A K Gamma Delta Theta Psi 0102 {ƒ13} 33 565 892 Byz lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV ("high place") CSBn

OTHER: "And he led him up to a high mountain"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)1 {D} (W) ƒ1 700 some cop

COMMENTS: The extra words were apparently added by copyists from Matthew 4:8. The evidence in braces reads "very high mountain" as in Matthew. Manuscript W omits the word "high."

Luke 4:8:

TEXT: "Jesus answered by saying to him, "It is written,"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L W Xi ƒ1 33 700 892* 1241 most lat syr(s,p) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Jesus answered by saying to him, 'Get behind me, Satan! It is written,"
EVIDENCE: A K Gamma Delta Theta Psi 0102 {ƒ13} 565 892c Byz old lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra phrase was apparently added by copyists from the parallel in Matthew 4:10. It is missing here from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 4:18:

TEXT: "He has sent me to preach release to the captives"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L W Xi ƒ13 33 700 892* 1241 most lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "He has sent me to heal the [ones] brokenhearted, to preach release to the captives"
EVIDENCE: A K Gamma Delta Theta Psi 0102 {ƒ1} 565 892c 1241 Byz some lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra phrase was apparently added by copyists from the Greek Old Testament of Isaiah 61:1, the passage being quoted. It is missing here from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 4:44:

TEXT: "he was preaching in the synagogues of Judea."
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B C L ƒ1 892 1241 Lect syr(s,h) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV ("the country") CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "he was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee."
EVIDENCE: A D K X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 1010 Byz lat vg syr(p) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn CSBn

OTHER: "he was preaching in the synagogues of the Jews."
EVIDENCE: W one Lect

COMMENTS: The name "Judea" seems to have been used here in the sense "the land of the Jews" rather than referring to the southern part of Palestine as is usually. Because of its usual sense, the word was changed by copyists to "Jews" or to the reading found in the parallel passages of Matthew 4:23 and Mark 1:39, which read "Galilee."

Luke 5:5:

TEXT: "let down plyour nets for a catch."
EVIDENCE: p75vid Aleph(א) B (D) L W Theta 700 892 few lat some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "let down plyour net for a catch."
EVIDENCE: A C K Gamma Delta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33vid 565 1241 Byz most lat syr(p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The plural "nets" is found in early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 5:6:

TEXT: " their nets started breaking"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B (D) L W 892 1241 (some lat) syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: " their net started breaking"
EVIDENCE: A (C) K Gamma Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33vid 565 700 Byz one lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The plural "nets" is found in early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 5:17:

TEXT: "teachers of the law sitting by, who had come"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a A2 B C K L W X Delta Theta Xi Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "teachers of the law sitting by. [People] had come"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* D 33 two lat syr(s)vid
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB

COMMENTS: The difference in the two readings is that in the footnote reading the definite article is omitted, making the second clause an independent sentence in Greek. Apparently some copyists saw difficulty with the statement that the religious leaders who were Jesus' enemies had come from every village throughout the land, and changed the text in a minor way to make others come to him.

Luke 5:17:

TEXT: "was in him to be healing."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W Xi cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "was [present] to be healing them."
EVIDENCE: A C D X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) syr(pal) ("them all") cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn

OTHER: "was [present] to be healing all."
EVIDENCE: K

COMMENTS: Apparently copyists did not realize that "him" was to be taken as the subject of the infinitive "to be healing," and so changed it to "them," "all," or "them all."

Luke 5:33:

TEXT: "John's disciples fast frequently and make petitions [to God], and so [do] the [disciples] of the Pharisees, but yours eat and drink."
EVIDENCE: p4 Aleph(א)a B L W Xi 33 892* 1241 most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Why do John's disciples fast frequently and make petitions [to God], and so [do] the [disciples] of the Pharisees, but yours eat and drink?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,c A C D K X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892c 1010 Byz Lect lat syr(p,h,pal) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "why do" were apparently added by copyists from the parallel passages in Mark 2:18 and (to a lesser extent) Matthew 9:14.

Luke 5:38:

TEXT: "But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins."
EVIDENCE: p4 Aleph(א)*,a B L ƒ1 33 700 1241 (most cop)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins, and [so] both are preserved."
EVIDENCE: A C (D) K X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 565 892 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The additions phrase was apparently added by copyists from the parallel in Matthew 9:17

Luke 5:39:

TEXT: "The old is good." (literally, "kind")
EVIDENCE: p4 Aleph(א) B L W 1241 syr(p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB CSBm
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "The old is better." (literally, "kinder")
EVIDENCE: A C K X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33vid 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect three lat vg syr(h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIV TEV CSB

NOTES: omit verse 39
EVIDENCE: D most lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

COMMENTS: The positive degree of the adjective was probably changed by copyists to the comparative to make the comparison clearer. The omission of verse 39 by some Western manuscripts is probably due to the influence of Marcion, who did not like the statement because it seemed to give authority to the Old Testament, which he rejected.

Luke 6:1:

TEXT: "happened [that] on a sabbath"
EVIDENCE: p4 Aleph(א) B L W ƒ1 33 1241 some lat syr(p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "happened [that] on the second first sabbath"
EVIDENCE: A C D K X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 Byz some lat vg syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV73n

COMMENTS: The word translated "second first" is of unknown meaning. Perhaps it here means the second sabbath after the first, that is, the next one, if it is original. But it has been suggested that the existence of the word is due to a scribal mistake. Perhaps some scribe inserted "first" and another scribe changed it to "second" by adding it here and using the common method of deleting a word by putting dots above it. The another scribe copied both words as one, not noticing that the word "first" had been deleted. If the word is original, it is certainly easy to see why some copyists omitted it.

Luke 6:2:

TEXT: "Why are plyou doing what is not permissible on the sabbaths?"
EVIDENCE: p4 p75vid B 700 lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Why are plyou doing what is not permissible to do on the sabbaths?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C K (L) W X Gamma Delta Theta {Psi} ƒ113} 33 565 892 1241 Byz one lat syr(h) {syr(p)} some cop(north) TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV TEV

OTHER: "Why are your disciples doing what is not permissible on the sabbaths?"
EVIDENCE: D

COMMENTS: The extra "to do" may be a natural addition or perhaps added by copyists from the parallel in Matthew 12:2. The word translated "to do" is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types. The evidence in braces has the singular "sabbath" instead of "sabbaths" like a number of modern translations.

Luke 6:5:

TEXT: put verse 5 between verses 4 and 6
EVIDENCE: all manuscripts except D
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: move verse 5 to between verses 10 and 11 and insert the following in its place: "On the same day he saw someone working on the sabbath and said to him, 'Man, if you know what you are doing, you are blessed; but if you do not know, you are cursed and a transgressor of the law.'"
EVIDENCE: D
COMMENTS: This curious addition by manuscript D makes three incidents in this place about Jesus and the sabbath.

Luke 6:10:

TEXT: "and his hand was restored"
EVIDENCE: p4 Aleph(א) B L 33 most lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and his hand was restored [as] healthy as the other [one]"
EVIDENCE: Gamma ƒ13 700 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "and his hand was restored as the other [one]"
EVIDENCE: A D K Q Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 565 old lat syr(h)
OTHER: "and his hand was restored healthy"
EVIDENCE: W

COMMENTS: The additional words were apparently added by copyists from the parallel passage in Matthew 12:13.

Luke 6:25:

TEXT: "Woe [to plyou] who laugh now,"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B K L T W Theta Xi 0147 ƒ1 ƒ13 700 892 1241 syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NASV CSBn
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Woe to plyou who laugh now,"
EVIDENCE: p75 A D P Q Gamma Delta Psi 33 565 Byz lat syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The words "to you" were apparently added by copyists from verse 24 and the first part of verse 25. It is difficult to tell the Greek text behind many modern translations that do not mark words added by the translators.

Luke 6:26:

TEXT: "Woe [to plyou] whenever all men speak well of plyou"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B E F H K L M P Q R S U V X Gamma Lamda Xi Pi Byz most lat vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NASV TEV CSBn
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Woe to plyou whenever all men speak well of plyou"
EVIDENCE: D W* Delta two lat syr(s,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB REB CSB

COMMENTS: The words "to you" were apparently added by copyists from verse 24 and the first part of verse 25. It is difficult to tell the Greek text behind many modern translations that do not mark words added by the translators.

Luke 6:35:

TEXT: "keep lending, expecting nothing in return" (literally, "keep lending, despairing nothing")
EVIDENCE: A B D K L P Xc Delta Theta Pi2 Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "keep lending, despairing of no one"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) W X* Xi Pi* syr
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn NEBn

COMMENTS: The reading "despairing of no one" is apparently due to a mistake of the eye. The difference between the Greek words for "no one" and "nothing" is only one letter. "No one" has an extra letter, an "alpha" at the end. The next word in Greek begins with the letter "alpha." Since early manuscripts were written without spaces between words, copyists apparently saw the "alpha" twice, once with "nothing" (making it read "no one") and once with the Greek word for "despairing."

Luke 6:48:

TEXT: "because it had been well built."
EVIDENCE: p75vid Aleph(א) B L W Xi 33 892 1241 most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "for it had been founded on the rock."
EVIDENCE: A C D K X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700c 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSB

OTHER: omit clause
EVIDENCE: p45vid 700* syr(s)

COMMENTS: This clause was apparently changed by some copyists to read like the one in the parallel in Matthew 7:25. It was accidently omitted by some copyists when their eyes jumped from "it" to "it," which stands last in the clause in the text.

Luke 7:7:

TEXT: "and let my servant be healed."
EVIDENCE: p75vid B L 1241 most cop
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV ESV NASV2020n CSBn
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "and my servant will be healed"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C D K W X Gamma Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 Byz lat vg syr(s,p,h) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB

COMMENTS: Apparently some copyists changed the verb to read like the parallel in Matthew 8:8.

Luke 7:11:

TEXT: "soon afterward he went to a city" (literally, "in the next [time]")
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א)c A B L X Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 700 1010 1241 some Byz some lat vg syr(s,pal) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "on the next [day] he went to a city" (literally, "in the next [day]")
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* C D K W Pi 28 565 892 some Byz four lat syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NEBn TEVn

COMMENTS: The difference between the two readings is one of the gender of the definite article. If the article is masculine, the word "time" is to be understood; if the article is feminine, the word "day" is to be understood. Since Luke several times writes "the next [day]" (Luke 9:37; Acts 21:1; 25:17; 27:18), but never elsewhere "in the next [day]," it is probable that copyists changed the general statement "in the next [time]" to the more specific "in the next [day]."

Luke 7:11:

TEXT: "his disciples and a large crowd"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B D L W Xi 1241 most lat vg syr(s,p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "a considerable [number of] his disciples and a large crowd"
EVIDENCE: A C K X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect some lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

OTHER: "a considerable [number of] disciples and a large crowd"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the word "considerable" was accidently omitted due to a mistake of the eye (it is spelled "ikanoi" in Greek and the following "and" is spelled "kai"), it has been left out of the UBS text because early manuscripts of different types of ancient text omit it.

Luke 7:19:

TEXT: "and sent [them] to the Lord"
EVIDENCE: B L Xi ƒ13 33 two lat early vg some cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "and sent [them] to Jesus"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A K W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat later vg syr(s,p,h) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

OTHER: "and sent [them] to the Lord Jesus"
EVIDENCE: syr(pal)

COMMENTS: Copyists were more likely to change "Jesus" to "the Lord" than visa versa. The reading "the Lord Jesus" is a mixture of the other two.

Luke 7:19:

TEXT: "should we be looking for another?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L R W Xi Psi 28 33 892 1241
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "should we be looking for [someone] different?"
EVIDENCE: A D Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 Maj
TRANSLATIONS: NASV73n

COMMENTS: The two Greek synonyms involved can both be translated "another" or "someone else," so it is difficult to tell which text most translations have followed. Since the parallel in Matthew 11:3 has "[someone] different," most likely "another" is original here and some copyists changed this passage to read the same as its parallel.

Luke 7:28:

TEXT: "among those born of women none is greater than John"
EVIDENCE: p75 B L (K) L W X Xi Pi ƒ1 33 565 some lat syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "among those born of women none is a greater prophet than John the Baptist"
EVIDENCE: A (D) Delta Theta Psi ƒ13 28 700 (892) 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the word "prophet" was omitted bu copyists to make it like the parallel in Matthew 11:11, the USB committee thought that it is also possible that it was added to make sure than it did not say that John was greater than Jesus. The words "the Baptist" are either a natural expansion that copyists were likely to make or borrowed from Matthew 11:11. Manuscript K adds the words "the Baptist." Manuscript D moves the phrase to the end of verse 26.

Luke 7:39:

TEXT: "If this [man] were a prophet"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B2 D K L P W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "If this [man] were the prophet"
EVIDENCE: B* Xi
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASVn

COMMENTS: The article "the" seems to have been added by a couple of copyists as a reference to Deuteronomy 18:15. Latin does not have a definite article.

Luke 8:3:

TEXT: "who were providing for them"
EVIDENCE: B D K W Delta Theta ƒ13 28 700 892 1010 some Byz some Lect some lat early vg syr(c,s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "who were providing for him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A L X Pi Psi ƒ1 33 565 1241 some Byz most Lect some lat later vg syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: The plural "them" is read by early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text. The singular may have been borrowed by copyists from similar statements in Matthew 27:55 and Mark 15:41.

Luke 8:26:

TEXT: "they sailed down to the country of the Gerasenes"
EVIDENCE: p75 B D lat vg one cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "they sailed down to the country of the Gadarenes"
EVIDENCE: A K W Delta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 565 700variant 892 1010 Byz Lect syr(c,s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

NOTES: "they sailed down to the country of the Gergesenes"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) L X Theta Xi ƒ1 33 700* 1241 syr(pal) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEB REBn TEVn

COMMENTS: Gerasa, Gadara, and Gergesa were all cities of the region called Decapolis, so each reading would refer to the same country. It seems most likely that "Gerasenes" was original here and in Mark 5:1, while "Gadarenes" was original in Matthew 8:28. The reading "Gergesenes" seems to have been proposed by Origen, and added to manuscripts under his influence.

Luke 8:27:

TEXT: "a certain man from the city who had demons met [him]; and for a considerable [period] of time he had worn no clothes"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א)*,b B L Xi (ƒ1) 33 1241 syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "a certain man from the city who had demons for a considerable [period] of time met [him]; and he had worn no clothes"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a A K W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr(c,s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn

OTHER: "a certain man from the city who had demons for a considerable [period] of time met [him] who had worn no clothes"
EVIDENCE: D

COMMENTS:

Luke 8:37:

TEXT: "the region around that of the Gerasenes"
EVIDENCE: p75 B C* D lat vg cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV ("that country") CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "the region around that of the Gadarenes"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a A K W Delta Pi Psi 28 565 700variant 892 1010 Byz syr(c,s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn CSBn

NOTES: "the region around that of the Gergesenes"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b C2 ("Gergarsenes") L P X Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 700* 1241 syr(pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEB REBn

COMMENTS: Gerasa, Gadara, and Gergesa were all cities of the region called Decapolis, so each reading would refer to the same country. It seems most likely that "Gerasenes" was original here and in Mark 5:1, while "Gadarenes" was original in Matthew 8:28. The reading "Gergesenes" seems to have been proposed by Origen, and added to manuscripts under his influence.

Luke 8:43:

TEXT: "flow of blood for twelve years [and] who had spent [her] whole living on doctors and could not be cured"
EVIDENCE: {Aleph(א)*} Aleph(א)c A {C} K L P W {X} Delta Theta Xi Pi {Psi} ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat {most lat vg syr(c,p,h) one syr(pal) cop(north)}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESV NASV73n NIVn NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "flow of blood for twelve years and could not be cured"
EVIDENCE: p75 B D one lat syr(s) most syr(pal) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSVn ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The phrase "who had spent [her] whole living on doctors" is in brackets in the UBS text, because of the early manuscripts of different text types that omit it. The phrase is a summary of Mark 5:26. The question is whether it was added by copyists or was original with Luke. Since the Greek word for "spent" here is a different word than "spent" in Mark and it is found nowhere else in the New Testament, it was judged that Luke was more likely to have written it. Copyists would probably have used the same word. The evidence listed in braces includes the word "her."

Luke 8:44:

TEXT: "came up behind [him], and touched the tassel of his cloak"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) A B C K L P W X Delta Theta Xi Pi Psi (omit "behind [him]") ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr ("his tassel") cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "came up and touched his cloak"
EVIDENCE: D some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn (includes "behind [him]")

COMMENTS: Although the words could have been added from the exact parallel in Matthew 9:20, the evidence for their being original here is very great.

Luke 8:45:

TEXT: "Peter said"
EVIDENCE: p75 B Pi 700* syr(c,s,pal) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Peter and those who were with him said"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C D K L P W X Delta Theta Xi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700variant 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV73n NEB CSBn

COMMENTS: The addition "and those who were with him" may be due to copyists trying to harmonize this verse with the parallel in Mark 5:31, which reads "his disciples said."

Luke 8:45:

TEXT: " the crowds are hemming you in and pressing against [you]!"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B L ƒ1 1241 syr(pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: " the crowds are hemming you in and pressing against [you], and [yet] you are saying, 'Who [is] the [one] touching me?'"
EVIDENCE: A C {D} K P W X Delta Theta Xi Pi {Psi} ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect {lat vg} syr(s,c,p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional clause seems to have been added by copyists from the similar parallel in Mark 5:31. The evidence in braces reads exactly like Mark 5:31.

Luke 8:54:

TEXT: "But taking her by the hand he called"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א) B D L 0291 ƒ1 700 1241 most lat syr(s,c)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "But putting [them] all outside and taking her by the hand he called"
EVIDENCE: (A) C (K W) Gamma Delta (Theta) Psi ƒ13 (33) 565 (892) Byz two lat syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional clause was apparently added by copyists from similar parallel passages in Matthew 9:25 and Mark 5:40. It is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 9:2:

TEXT: "to preach the kingdom of God and to heal the sick."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C D K L W X Delta Theta Xi Pi Psi 0202 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat Ivg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NASV73n NIV REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "to preach the kingdom of God and to heal."
EVIDENCE: B syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB

COMMENTS: The words "the sick" are in brackets in the UBS text. Two different forms of the Greek word for "sick" are found in the manuscripts that have it. "The sick" is included here since elsewhere Luke always uses an object with the active infinitive "to heal."

Luke 9:10:

TEXT: "withdrew privately to a city called Bethsaida"
EVIDENCE: (p75) Aleph(א)a B (D "village") L Xi (Psi "place") 33 (most cop)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "withdrew privately to a desolate place of a city called Bethsaida"
EVIDENCE: A C K N W Gamma Delta (Theta "village") ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 Byz syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "withdrew privately to a desolate place"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b (1241) syr(c) some cop(north)
COMMENTS: The words "to a desolate place" were apparently added here by copyists from the parallel passages in Matthew 14:13 and Mark 6:31. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Luke 9:23:

TEXT: "he must deny himself and take up his cross daily and keep following me"
EVIDENCE: p75 Aleph(א)*,b A B K L M R W Theta Xi Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 700 892 two lat vg syr(c,p,h) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "he must deny himself and take up his cross and keep following me"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a C Gamma Delta 565 Byz most lat syr(s) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

NOTES: "he must keep following me"
EVIDENCE: D two lat

COMMENTS: The words translated "daily" or "day by day" (NEB REB) were apparently omitted by copyists under the influence of the same saying in the parallel passages in Matthew 16:24 and Mark 8:34. The clause missing from manuscript D seems to be due to a mistake of the eye.


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