A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

Mark 8:10-16:20


Mark 8:10:

TEXT: "went to the district of Dalmanutha"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C K L W ("region of Dalmounai") X Delta Pi 33 700 892 1010 1241 ("region") Byz Lect three lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV ESV NASV NIV NEB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "went to the region of Magedan"
EVIDENCE: D 28 565 ("district") most lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn ("Magadan") NRSVn ESVn ("Magadan") NEBn REBn

NOTES: "went to the district of Magdala"
EVIDENCE: Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: The reading "the region of Magedan" (also spelled "Mageda," "Magedam," "Magada," and "Melegada") is taken from the parallel passage in Matthew 15:39 and the name "Magdala" comes from a variant reading of that passage. The name "Dalmanutha" is found nowhere else and its exacts location is unknown, which accounts for its being changed by copyists.

Mark 8:15:

TEXT: "the leaven of Herod."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D K L X Delta Pi 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "the leaven of the Herodians."
EVIDENCE: p45 W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 two lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: The reading "Herodians" seems to have been invented by copyists influenced by Mark 3:6 and 12:13 who wanted a group name to parallel the group name "Pharisees."

Mark 8:16:

TEXT: "they started reasoning with one another [that he said this] because they had* no bread."
EVIDENCE: p45 B D W ƒ1 28 565 700 most lat cop(south) most cop(north) (include "saying")
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn ESV NASV REB CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "they started reasoning with one another, saying, "[It is] because we have no bread.'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) (omit "saying") A C K L X Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 33 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV NIV NEB TEV ("He says this")

COMMENTS: It change from indirect to direct discourse was perhaps made by copyists under the influence of the parallel in Matthew 16:7 which reads "we took no bread." It was perhaps prompted by the fact that the text reading is in the present tense: "they have." Manuscript D and most of the old latin manuscripts change this to an imperfect tense: "they had."

Mark 8:26:

TEXT: "Do not even enter into the village."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W ƒ1 syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Do not even enter into the village, nor tell anyone in the village."
EVIDENCE: A C K X Delta Pi 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn NIVn CSBn

NOTES: "Tell no one in the village."
EVIDENCE: one lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REBn

COMMENTS: The different manuscripts show seven different readings which are combinations of the three phrases "go to your house" (see Mark 2:11 and 5:19), "do not enter into the village," and "tell no one in the village." The three found in English translations are listed above. While it is possible that the reading given in the text is a reading that was shortened from the first footnote reading in order to avoid redundancy, it is more likely that the footnote reading is a combination of the text reading and its variation "tell no one in the village."

Mark 8:35:

TEXT: "whoever will lose his life for my sake and the gospel's will save it."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C K L W X (Delta) Theta Pi 0214 ƒ1 ƒ13 (33) 565 892 1010 1241 Byz some lat vg syr(s,p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "whoever will lose his life for the sake of the gospel will save it."
EVIDENCE: p45 D 28 700 some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that "my" was added from the parallels in Matthew 16:25 and Luke 9:24, the great majority of manuscripts contain the words "my and."

Mark 8:38:

TEXT: "whoever is ashamed of me and of my words"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D K L X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "whoever is ashamed of me and of mine"
EVIDENCE: p45vid W one lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEB

COMMENTS: The difference in the readings is caused only by the absence of "words" in the footnote reading. The same Greek word can be translated "my" and "mine." Although it is possible that the word "words" was added from the parallel in Luke 9:26, it is much more likely that it was accidently omitted through a mistake of the eye, since the Greek words for "my" and "words" both end in the same letters ("-ous").

Mark 8:38:

TEXT: "he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D K L X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "he comes in the glory of his Father and the holy angels."
EVIDENCE: p45 W syr(s) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REBn

COMMENTS: The reading of "and" seems to have been taken from the parallel in Luke 9:26.

Mark 9:23:

TEXT: "That 'if you can'!"
EVIDENCE: (p45) Aleph(א) B C* L N* (W) Delta ƒ1 892 one lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "That if you can believe!"
EVIDENCE: A C3 D K X Theta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently the word "believe" was added by copists from its usage later in the verse. A number of manuscripts have have the note reading omit the article (here translated "That") because with the addition of "believe" it no longer makes sense.

Mark 9:24:

TEXT: "the father of the child cried out and"
EVIDENCE: p45 Aleph(א) A* B C* L W Delta Psi 28 700 one lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "the father of the child cried out with tears and"
EVIDENCE: A2 C3 D K X Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: The words "with tears" seem to have been added by copyists and correctors to heighten the story. There is no good reason why the words would have been omitted if they had been original.

Mark 9:26:

TEXT: "after crying out and convulsing [him] terribly"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c B C* D L Delta some lat
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "after crying out and convulsing him terribly"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A C3 N X Gamma Pi Byz most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB [REB TEV ("the boy")] CSB

COMMENTS: The UBS text does not have the Greek word for "him" although the Textus Receptus (TR) does. It is difficult to tell whether modern translations that do not indicate added words are following one text or the other. The word "him" is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types. The KJV and NKJV also add "of him" after "came out" following the Latin Vulgate rather than the TR Greek text. A few manuscripts (D lat syr(s) cop(south)) do have those words.

Mark 9:29:

TEXT: "This kind can come out by nothing except by prayer."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B one lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "This kind can come out by nothing except by prayer and fasting."
EVIDENCE: p45vid Aleph(א)b A C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(h) syr(s,p,pal) ("fasting and prayer") cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn CSBn

COMMENTS: Because of the emphasis put on fasting in the early church, there was a tendency for copyists to add a reference to fasting after a reference to prayer.

Mark 9:38:

TEXT: "we saw someone casting out demons in your name"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L Delta Theta Psi 892 two lat syr(s,p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "we saw someone casting out demons in your name who does not follow us"
EVIDENCE: A {D} K {W X} Pi {ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700} 1010 {1241} Byz Lect {most lat vg syr(h)} syr(h+)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The phrase "who does not follow us" seems to have been added from the last part of the verse: "because he was not following us." This last phrase is omitted by those manuscripts that are listed above in braces. In them the phrase was apparently moved to this position and the wording changed slightly.

Mark 9:40:

TEXT: " he who is not against us is for us"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C W Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 892 1241 one lat(k) syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

OTHER: "he who is not against plyou is for plyou"
EVIDENCE: A D K N Gamma 700 Byz most lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: none

COMMENTS: See the parallel in Luke 9:50. The early Textus Receptus had the words for plural you, but the 1598 version by Beza used the words for us. The older reading seems to be "us."

Mark 9:42:

TEXT: "one of these little ones who believe in me"
EVIDENCE: A B C2vid K L W X Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV2020 NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "one of these little ones who believe"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C*vid D ("have faith") Delta some lat some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn NASV95 NEB ("have faith") REB

COMMENTS: The words "in me" are in brackets in the UBS text because they may have been added from the parallel in Matthew 18:6. There is strong manuscript evidence in favor of keeping them, but they are absent from early manuscripts of different kinds of ancient text.

Mark 9:44:

TEXT: omit verses 44 and 46
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L W Delta Psi ƒ1 28 565 892 one lat syr(s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: include verses 44 and 46 (both identical to verse 48): "where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched."
EVIDENCE: A D K N X Gamma Theta Pi ƒ13 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 (in brackets) NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Verses 44 and 46 seem to have been added by copyists from verse 48.

Mark 9:45:

TEXT: "and be thrown into hell"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L W Delta Psi 0274 ƒ1 (28) 892 two lat syr(s,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "and be thrown into hell, into the unquenchable fire"
EVIDENCE: A D K N (X) Gamma Theta Pi ƒ13 565 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

COMMENTS: The extra phrase is apparently added from verse 43.

Mark 9:46:

TEXT: omit verses 44 and 46
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L W Delta Psi ƒ1 28 565 892 one lat syr(s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: include verses 44 and 46 (both identical to verse 48): "where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched."
EVIDENCE: A D K N X Gamma Theta Pi ƒ13 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 (in brackets) NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Verses 44 and 46 seem to have been added by copyists from verse 48.

Mark 9:49:

TEXT: "everyone will be salted with fire."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W Delta ƒ1 ƒ13 28* 565 700 syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV? CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "everyone will be salted with fire, and every sacrifice will be salted with salt."
EVIDENCE: A C K X Theta Pi Psi 28c 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

NOTES: "every sacrifice will be salted with salt."
EVIDENCE: D some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

COMMENTS: In Greek the clauses in question begin with "every" and end with "salted." While it is possible that one or the other of them was accidently omitted through a mistake of the eye, it is more likely that the second clause was added from Leviticus 2:13 as an explanation of the first, perhaps at first in the margin, and from there was either substituted for the first, or added to the text.

Mark 10:2:

TEXT: "And Pharisees came up and to test him they started asking him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And to test him they started asking him"
EVIDENCE: D some lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB

COMMENTS: The words "Pharisees came up" are found in several different word orders, with and without "the." These words may have been added from the parallel in Matthew 19:3. However, since they appear in most manuscripts and none of the various word orders is exactly the same as the parallel in Matthew, they are retained in the UBS text.

Mark 10:6:

TEXT: "[God] made them male and female."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L Delta one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NASV CSBn
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "God made them male and female."
EVIDENCE: A {D} K N X {W} Gamma Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The word "God" was apparently added by copists for clarity. It is difficult to tell whether modern translations that do not mark added words are following the reading in the notes or adding the word "God" for clarity. The evidence in braces omits the word "them."

Mark 10:7:

TEXT: "a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife"
EVIDENCE: A C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892margin 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIV NEB REB TEV CSBn
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "a man shall leave his father and mother"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B Psi 892* syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV NIVn NEBn TEVn CSB

COMMENTS: The words "and be joined to his wife" are in brackets in the UBS text. Although they might have been added from the source of quotation in Genesis 2:24 and from the parallel passage in Matthew 19:5, it is more likely that they were accidently omitted when copyists' eyes jumped from "and" to "and," because the quotation does not make sense without them.

Mark 10:21:

TEXT: "and come, start following me"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D Delta Theta Psi 0274 565 892 most lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and come, start following me, taling up the cross"
EVIDENCE: A K N (W) Gamma (ƒ1 ƒ13 28) 700 1241 Byz two lat some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra words are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Mark 10:24:

TEXT: "how difficult it is to enter into the kingdom of God!"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B Delta Psi one lat cop(south) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "how difficult it is for those who trust in wealth to enter into the kingdom of God!"
EVIDENCE: A C D K X Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV73n NIVn NEBn REBn CSBn

OTHER: "how difficult it is for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God!"
EVIDENCE: W one lat

OTHER: "how difficult it is for those who have wealth to enter into the kingdom of God!"
EVIDENCE: 1241

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the omission of "for those who trust in wealth" was due to a mistake of the eye (the Greek words for "is" and "wealth" both end in the same two letters), it is also quite possible that a hard saying of Jesus has been softened by copyists with the addition of a qualifying statement like that found in verse 23. The qualifying statement in manuscript W was taken from verse 25 and that of manuscript 1241 was taken from verse 23.

Mark 10:26:

TEXT: "saying among themselves, 'Who indeed can be saved?'"
EVIDENCE: A D K W X Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(s,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSV ESVn NASVn NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "saying to him, 'Who indeed can be saved?'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C Delta Psi 892 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV

OTHER: "saying to one another, 'Who indeed can be saved?'"
EVIDENCE: M* some lat syr(p)

COMMENTS: The reading "to him" seems to be a change made by the Alexandrian type of manuscripts, since Jesus answers their question in the next verse. Most English translations render "to themselves" as "to one another."

Mark 10:29:

TEXT: "no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or farms"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B W Delta Theta ƒ1 565 700 892 most lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father or wife or children or farms"
EVIDENCE: A C K N Gamma Psi ƒ13 28 1241 Byz two lat syr(p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or children or farms"
EVIDENCE: D some lat

COMMENTS: The word "wives" was apparently added by copyists from the parallel in Luke 18:29. It is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types. The omission of "fathers" from Western manuscripts is apparently due to it not being repeated in verse 30.

Mark 10:40:

TEXT: "for whom it has been prepared."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a A B C D K L W X Delta Pi Psi ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "for whom it has been prepared by my Father."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b Theta ƒ1 1241 two lat some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: The words "by my Father" have been added by some copyists from the parallel passage in Matthew 20:23.

Mark 11:8:

TEXT: "many spread their cloaks on the road, but others [spread] leafy branches which they had cut from the fields"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B (C) L Delta Psi cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV? CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "many spread their cloaks on the road, but others were cutting leafy branches from the trees and spreading [them] in the road"
EVIDENCE: A D (K N) Gamma (Theta) ƒ1 ƒ13 28 (565 700) 1241 Byz lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading in the notes was apparently adjusted by copyists to read like the parallel in Matthew 21:8. There are a number of variations between those manuscripts.

Mark 11:19:

TEXT: "whenever evening came they would go out"
EVIDENCE: A B K W Delta Pi Psi 28 565 700 four lat syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV REB CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "whenever evening came he would go out"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C D X Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn NEB

COMMENTS: Either some copyists changed the singular to the plural to fit with the next verse, or other copyists changed the plural to the singular to fit with the previous verse. The plural was chosen for the UBS text because the manuscript evidence seems stronger for it. Manuscript L has accidently omitted the verb. A number of English translations clarify "they" by reading "Jesus and his disciples."

Mark 11:22:

TEXT: "Keep having faith in God"
EVIDENCE: A B C L N X Gamma Delta Pi most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "If you have faith in God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) D Theta ƒ13 28 33c 565 700 old lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn

COMMENTS: The insertion of the word "if" in a number of manuscripts seems to be an assimilation to similar sayings in Matthew 21:21 and Luke 17:6.

Mark 11:24:

TEXT: "keep believing that plyou have received [it]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L W Delta Psi 892 some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV2 NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "keep believing that plyou are receiving [it]"
EVIDENCE: A K X Pi ƒ13 28 33 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr some cop(south) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV* RSV1 RSV2n NRSVn ESVn CSBn

NOTES: "keep believing that plyou will receive [it]"
EVIDENCE: D Theta ƒ1 565 700 lat vg some cop
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn
COMMENTS: The aorist tense (usually translated as a past tense in English) here is used to represent the Semitic prophetic perfect (that is, the use of the perfect tense to refer to a future action in order to express the certainty that it will happen). Copyists who did not understand this Semitic usage of the verb changed it either to a present tense, or, like the parallel in Matthew 21:22, to a future tense.

Mark 11:26:

TEXT: omit verse 26
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W Delta Psi 565 700 892 two lat some vg syr(s,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: include verse 26: "But if plyou do not forgive, neither will plyour Father who is in heaven forgive plyour trespasses."
EVIDENCE: A C D K X Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat most vg syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although this verse might have been accidently omitted through a mistake of the eye when copyists' eyes jumped from "plyour trespasses" in verse 25 to "plyour trespasses" in verse 26, the fact that it is missing from several different kinds of ancient text makes it likely that it was added by copyists who remembered Matthew 6:15. It contains several variations in the manuscripts in which it is found.

Mark 12:4:

TEXT: "they wounded him in the head"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L W Delta Psi ƒ1 28 33 565 700 lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "throwing stones, they wounded him in the head"
EVIDENCE: A C K N Gamma Theta ƒ13 892 1241 Bya syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading in the text is supported by early manuscripts from multiple text types.

Mark 12:4:

TEXT: "and dishonored [him]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B (D) L Delta Psi 33 892 lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and sent [hom] away dishonoring [him]"
EVIDENCE: A C K N Gamma Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word for "sent away" was apparently added by copyists from verse 3. The reading in the text is supported by early manuscripts from multiple text types.

Mark 12:22:

TEXT: "the seven left no offspring"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L 28 33 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "the seven took her and left no offspring"
EVIDENCE: (A) (D) X Gamma Pi Byz lat vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "took her and" were apparently added by copyists from verse 21 to clarify that they married her. There are a number of variations in the manuscripts that support the reading in the notes.

Mark 12:23:

TEXT: "In the resurrection, whenever they rise, to which of them"
EVIDENCE: A K (W) X Theta Pi (ƒ1) ƒ13 (28 565) 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,h,h+)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn ESV NASV95 NIVn NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "In the resurrection to which of them"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D L W Delta Psi 33 892 four lat syr(p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV NASV95n NASV2020 NIV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "whenever they rise" are in brackets in the UBS text, because they are omitted from early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text. However, the words are somewhat redundant following "in the resurrection" and it is probable that they were deliberately omitted by copyists to remove this redundancy. They are not found in the parallel passages in Matthew 22:28 and Luke 20:33. The same kind of redundancy is found elsewhere in Mark (see "creation which God created" in Mark 13:19) and is probably original. Some manuscripts of both traditions include the word "Therefore."

Mark 12:29:

TEXT: "The first is"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Delta Psi some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "The first of all the commandments [is]"
EVIDENCE: A {C} K Gamma {ƒ13} 33 1241 Byz most lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "The first of all [is]"
EVIDENCE: D W Theta (ƒ1 28) 565 (700) old lat syr(s)

COMMENTS: The additional words were apparently added by copyists from the question in the previous verse. There is musch variation in word order and word forms in the manuscripts with additional words. The evidence in braces contain the Greek word for "is."

Mark 12:30:

TEXT: "you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Delta Psi one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength. This is the first commandment."
EVIDENCE: A D K W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz most lat syr some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra sentence was apparently added by copyists from the parallel in Matthew 22:38.

Mark 12:33:

TEXT: "and to keep loving him with all the heart, and with all the intelligence, and with all the strength"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W Delta Theta Psi ƒ1 28 565 892 1241 one lat some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and to keep loving him with all the heart, and with all the intelligence, and with all the soul, and with all the strength"
EVIDENCE: A K Gamma 087 ƒ13 33 700 Byz most lat syr(p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra words "and with all the soul" were apparently added by copyists from verse 30.

Mark 12:36:

TEXT: "I put your enemies underneath your feet."
EVIDENCE: B D W 28 syr(s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "I put your enemies [as] a footstool for your feet."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A K L X Delta Theta Pi Psi 092b ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that some copyists changed this passage to read like the parallel in Matthew 22:44 ("underneath"), it is more likely that other copyists changed it to read like the parallel in Luke 20:43 (which is like Acts 2:35 and the Greek Old Testament of Psalm 110:1).

Mark 13:8:

TEXT: "there will be earthquakes in [various] places, there will be famines"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 B (D) L Psi (most lat vg) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "there will be earthquakes in [various] places, there will be famines and disturbances"
EVIDENCE: A K W Gamma Delta {Theta} ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect one lat syr(p,h) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "there will be earthquakes"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the unique reading "and disturbances" was accidently omitted, it is more likely to be a scribal expansion since it is not found in early manuscripts of mulitple text types. Manuscript Theta reads "epidemics" (Greek loimoi) rather than "famines" (Greek limoi).

Mark 13:18:

TEXT: "And be praying that it may not happen in winter."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B (D) W 083 syr(s) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And be praying that plyour flight may not happen in winter."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 A K Gamma Delta Psi ƒ1 700 892 1241 Byz (one lat) syr(p,h) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

NOTES: "And be praying that these things may not happen in winter."
EVIDENCE: L (Theta) ƒ13 28 565 (some lat some vg some cop)
TRANSLATIONS: NIV ("this") TEV

COMMENTS: The addition of the words "your flight" in the reading of the notes was apparently taken from the parallel in Matthew 24:19. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types. The addition of "these things" is probably an attempt at clarification by copyists.

Mark 13:33:

TEXT: "Keep looking out, keep alert; for plyou do not know"
EVIDENCE: B D four lat cop(Fayyumic)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Keep looking out, keep alert, and keep praying; for plyou do not know"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop(north,south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn NEBn REBn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "and keep praying" seem to be a natural expansion taken perhaps from Mark 14:38. If they had been original, there is no good reason why they would have been omitted. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Mark 14:24:

TEXT: "This is my blood of the covenant"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D L W Theta Psi 565 two lat most cop(north) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "This is my blood of the new covenant"
EVIDENCE: A K P X Delta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr some cop(north) most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the word "new" was accidently omitted due to a mistake of the eye (the Greek words for "the," "new," and "covenant" all end in the same two letters), it is much more likely that it was added here by copyists from the parallel accounts in Luke 22:20 and I Corinthians 11:25.

Mark 14:27:

TEXT: "plYou will all be ensnared [so as to fall away]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C* D L Gamma Delta Psi* three old lat some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "plYou will all be ensnared [so as to fall away] by [rejecting] me this night"
EVIDENCE: A C2 K N W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 1241 later vg syr(p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

NOTES: "plYou will all be ensnared [so as to fall away] by [rejecting] me"
EVIDENCE: Psic 28 most old lat some cop

COMMENTS: The additional words are apparently taken from the parallel in Matthew 26:31. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Mark 14:30:

TEXT: "before a rooster crows twice"
EVIDENCE: A B C2 K L X Delta Theta Pi 0112 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some old lat vg syr(s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "before a rooster crows"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C* D W many old lat
TRANSLATIONS: NIVn

COMMENTS: Apparently a number of copyists deleted Mark's detail of two rooster crowings to match the parallels in Matthew 26:34 and Luke 22:34.

Mark 14:39:

TEXT: "he went away and prayed, saying the same words."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi Psi 0112 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "he went away and prayed."
EVIDENCE: D some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB

COMMENTS: It is much more likely that the clause "saying the same words" was omitted by some Western manuscripts than that it was added exactly the same in all different kinds of ancient text, perhaps from Matthew 26:44 (the parallel verse in Matthew is 26:42).

Mark 14:65:

TEXT: "saying to him, 'Prophesy!'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D K L Pi Psi ("Prophesy to us") 067 ƒ1 ("Prophesy now") 28 1010 1241 Byz lat vg syr(s) ("Prophesy now to us") syr(p) some cop(north) some cop(south) ("Prophesy to us")
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "saying to him, 'Prophesy now, Christ! Who is it that struck you?'"
EVIDENCE: W ƒ13
NOTES: "saying to him, 'Prophesy to us, Christ! Who is it that struck you?'"
EVIDENCE: X Delta Theta 33 565 700 892 syr(h,h+) most cop(north) some cop(south)
NOTES: "saying to him, 'Prophesy to us! Who is it that struck you?'"
EVIDENCE: Lect
TRANSLATIONS: [NEBn REBn (omit "to us")] TEV ("Guess who hit you!")

COMMENTS: Several copyists added part or all of the phrases found in the parallel passages of Matthew 26:68 and Luke 22:64.

Mark 14:68:

TEXT: "he went outside into the fore-court, and a rooster crowed."
EVIDENCE: A C D K X Delta Theta Pi Psic 067 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) one cop(north) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESV NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "he went outside into the fore-court."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W Psi* 892 one lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSVn ESVn NASV NIV NEB TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "and a rooster crowed" are in brackets in the UBS text. While it is possible that they were added here by copyists to make the rooster crow twice, it is more likely that they were omitted by other copyists to make the account read like that in Matthew, Luke, and John, especially since three of the manuscripts that omit them (Aleph(א), L, and latin manuscript c) also omit the reference to two crowings in verses 30 and 72 (manuscript W also omits "twice" in verse 30). If the words had been added by copyists, is would be expected that they would have been added at various places, not at the same place by all copyists..

Mark 14:70:

TEXT: "for indeed you are a Galilean."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D L Psi ƒ1 565 700 most lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "for indeed you are a Galilean and your way of speaking is like [theirs]."
EVIDENCE: A K N Gamma Delta Theta ƒ13 28 (33) 892 1241 Byz one lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional words were apparently added by copyists to make it similiar to Matthew 26:73. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Mark 14:72:

TEXT: "immediately a rooster crowed a second time"
EVIDENCE: A B C2vid D K W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "immediately a rooster crowed"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C*vid L some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NIVn

COMMENTS: Apparently a number of copyists deleted Mark's detail of two rooster crowings to match the parallels in Matthew 26:74 and Luke 22:60.

Mark 14:72:

TEXT: "Before a rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times"
EVIDENCE: A B C2 K L Xvid Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat syr(s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Before a rooster crows, you will deny me three times"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C*vid W Delta some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NIVn

OTHER: omit quotation
EVIDENCE: D two lat

COMMENTS: Apparently a number of copyists deleted Mark's detail of two rooster crowings to match the parallels in Matthew 26:75 and Luke 22:61.

Mark 15:8:

TEXT: "And the crowd came up and began asking"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B D ("whole crowd") 892 most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "And the crowd cried [aloud] and began asking"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)b A C K W X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 1010 1241 ("whole crowd") Byz Lect syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: The Greek words translated "came up" and "cried [aloud]" are similar: anabas and anaboêsas, respectively. The words "came up" are in the UBS text because they are found in early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text.

Mark 15:12:

TEXT: "Then what do plyou wish I would do"
EVIDENCE: A D K N Gamma Theta 28 565 700 1241 Byz lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "Then what shall I do"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C W Delta Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 892 most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV NIV NEB REB

COMMENTS: The word for "you wish" is in brackets in the UBS text. The question is whether the word was added by copyists from verse 9 or omitted to make Mark the same as the parallel in Matthew 27:22.

Mark 15:12:

TEXT: "[with the one] whom plyou call the King of the Jews?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) (B) C K N Gamma Delta Psi 28 33 892 1241 Byz syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "[with] the King of the Jews?"
EVIDENCE: A D W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 lat syr(s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

COMMENTS: The words for "whom you call" are in brackets in the UBS text. While it is possible that copyists paraphrased "the one called" in Matthew 27:22, it is more likely to be original to Mark. The omission may be due to making it read like verse 9.

Mark 15:28:

TEXT: omit verse 28
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D X Psi Lect two lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: include verse 28: "And the scripture was fulfilled which says, 'And he was reckoned with outlaws.'"
EVIDENCE: K L P Delta Theta Pi 0112 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 (in brackets) NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although the verse might have been accidently omitted when copyists' eyes jumped from the "And" at the beginning of verse 28 to the "And" at the beginning of verse 29, the number of early manuscripts that omit it would indicate that it was more likely added by copyists who remembered Luke 22:37 and Isaiah 53:12. Perhaps it was first written in the margin of early manuscripts.

Mark 15:34:

TEXT: "why have you forsaken me?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C K L P X Delta Theta Pi Psi 059 0112 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "why have you reproached me?"
EVIDENCE: D three lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEBn

COMMENTS: The word "reproached" perhaps was added from verse 32.

Mark 15:39:

TEXT: "saw that he expired like this"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Psi 892 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIVn NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "saw that he cried out and expired like this"
EVIDENCE: A C D K W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIV NEBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the word for "cried out" was accidently omitted by an early copyist of the Alexandrian type of text (both "cried out" and "like this" end with the same Greek letter), the word may also have been borrowed from Matthew 27:50, or paraphrased from verse 37. Some of the witnesses (W Theta 565 syr(s) cop(north)) omit "like this."

Mark 15:44:

TEXT: "whether he died [very] long ago."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C K L Xvid Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr(p,h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV NEB TEV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "whether he had already died."
EVIDENCE: B D W Theta lat vg syr(pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV ESV NASV NIV REB CSB

OTHER: "whether he had died."
EVIDENCE: syr(s)

COMMENTS: Because the Greek word for "long ago" seemed harsh here, it was apparently changed by some copyists to "already," which they borrowed from the first part of the verse.

Mark 16:1:

TEXT: "And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the [mother] of James, and Salome bought spices"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C K L W Delta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect two lat vg syr(s,p,h) some cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "And they went and bought spices"
EVIDENCE: D three lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

OTHER: "And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the [mother] of James, and Salome went and bought spices"
EVIDENCE: Theta 565 three lat syr(pal) cop(north)

COMMENTS: The omission of the women's names in manuscript D seems to have been in the interest of simplifying the text (two of them had just been mentioned).

Mark 16:8:

TEXT: include verses 9 through 20
EVIDENCE: A C D K W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz some Lect most lat vg syr(c,p,h,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV1n RSV2 NRSVn ESV (in double brackets) NASV(text ed.; in brackets) NIV (2011 in italics) NEBn REBn TEVn CSB (in brackets)
CERTAINTY: "A" to omit; included in double brackets

NOTES: omit verses 9 through 20
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B 304 2386 most Lect(?) syr(s) one cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NKJVn ASVn RSV1 RSV2n NRSVn ESV (in heading) NASVn NIV (in heading) NEBn REBn TEVn CSB (in heading)

NOTES: include the following plus verses 9 through 20: "But they reported briefly to Peter [and] those around [him] all that they had been told. And after this, Jesus himself also sent out through them, from east even to west, the sacred and imperishable preached message of eternal salvation. Amen."
EVIDENCE: L Psi 099 0112 274margin 579 one Lect syr(h)margin some cop
TRANSLATIONS: RSV2n NRSV (in double brackets) ESVn NASV(ref.ed.) NIV2011n NEB REB TEV CSBn

NOTES: include the reading above and omit verses 9 through 20
EVIDENCE: one lat (manuscript k)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn NIV2011n NEBn REBn CSBn

COMMENTS: Verses 9 through 20 are in double brackets in the UBS text, which means that the UBS Textual Committee felt that they were not originally written by Mark. Verses 9 through 20 are missing from manuscript 2386 because a leaf is missing from the manuscript at this point. The so-called "short ending" quoted above is obviously not original. It was possibly written to end a manuscript that was missing verses 9 through 20. Verses 9 through 20 are missing from manuscripts from the fourth century AD, but portions from them are quoted as scripture in the second century by Irenaeus in Gaul (modern southern France) and incorporated into Tatian's Diatessaron in Syria. Verses 9 through 20 are often suspected of having been added to Mark to give it an ending, because it is supposedly written in a different style from the rest of Mark. A close examination of style, however, reveals that it is not so different in style from the rest of Mark as is sometimes claimed. See the Appendix: The Style of the Long Ending of Mark.

Mark 16:14:

TEXT: "after he had been raised."
EVIDENCE: A C D K L X Delta Theta Pi Psi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "after he had been raised. And they defended [themselves], saying, 'This age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the things under the unclean spirits to attain to the truth [and] power of God. For this [reason] reveal your righteousness right now.' They were saying [this] to Christ and Christ was replying to them, 'The term of years of Satan's authority has been fulfilled, but other terrible things are coming near. And for those having sinned I was delivered to death, so that they may return to the truth and no longer sin, so that they may inherit the spiritual and imperishable glory of righteousness which is in heaven.'"
EVIDENCE: W
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn (mentioned only, not quoted): RSV2n ESVn NEBn REBn COMMENTS: The above addition is found only in manuscript W, although Jerome was familiar with part of it and says that it was found in some manuscripts of his time (the fourth and fifth centuries).

Mark 16:17:

TEXT: "they will speak with new tongues"
EVIDENCE: A C2 Dsupp K W X Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV [NEB REB TEV ("strange")] CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "they will speak with tongues"
EVIDENCE: C* L Delta Psi most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: The word "new" was possibly accidently omitted by a mistake of the eye, when copyists eyes jumped from the beginning of the Greek word for "new" to the next word "and." The Greek word for "new" begins with the letters that spell the Greek word for "and."

Mark 16:18:

TEXT: "and in [their] hands they will pick up snakes"
EVIDENCE: C L X Delta Psi ƒ1 33 565 892 syr(c,h+) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV ESV NIV CSBn
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "they will pick up snakes"
EVIDENCE: A Dsupp K W Theta Pi ƒ13 28 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn NASV NEB REB TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The words "and in [their] hands" are in brackets in the UBS text, which follows the Alexandrian witnesses, even though they may have been added because of the reference to Paul's hand in Acts 28:3-6.

Mark 16:20:

TEXT: "the signs that followed."
EVIDENCE: A C2 ƒ1 33 three lat later vg syr most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "the signs that followed. Amen."
EVIDENCE: C*vid Dsupp K L W X Delta Theta Pisupp Psi ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat earlier vg most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NASVn

COMMENTS: It was usual for copyists to add "Amen" to the end of a book.


Bruce Terry's Home Page
Bruce Terry's Home Page   Index Page
Page maintained by    Copyright © 1985, 1998, 2021 Bruce Terry
Last Modified July 2, 2021
http://bible.ovu.edu/terry/tc/lay05mrk.htm