A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

The Gospel According to Mark

Mark 1:1-7:28


Mark 1:1:

TEXT: "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a A B D K L W Delta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* Theta 28c syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

OTHER: "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus."
EVIDENCE: 28*

OTHER* "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of the Lord." EVIDENCE: 1241
COMMENTS: The words "the Son of God" are in brackets in the UBS text. Some of the evidence listed above for this reading has "Son of the God." While it is possible that the words were added by copyists, it is more likely that they are original and were accidently omitted when copyists' eyes jumped from the word "Christ" to "God," both of which have the same ending in Greek.

Mark 1:2:

TEXT: "Just as it is written in Isaiah the prophet"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Delta Theta ƒ1 33 565 700 892 1241 lat vg syr(p,pal) syr(h)margin cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "Just as it is written in the prophets"
EVIDENCE: A K P W Pi ƒ13 28 1010 Byz Lect syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The quotation in verses 2 and 3 is from two scriptures: the first part is from Malachi 3:1 and the second part is from Isaiah 40:3. Thus it is likely that copyists changed the reference to make it more general. The reading in the text is found in several types of ancient text.

Mark 1:2:

TEXT: "who will prepare your way"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D K L P W Theta 700* most lat syr(p) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "who will prepare your way before you"
EVIDENCE: A Gamma Delta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700c 892 1010 1241 Byz some lat syr(h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "before you" were apparently added by scribes from the queotation in Matthew 11:10. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Mark 1:4:

TEXT: "[so] John appeared, who was baptizing in the wilderness and preaching"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) L Delta most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "[so] John the baptizer came in the wilderness, preaching"
EVIDENCE: B 33 892 some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV NASV NEB REB TEVn CSBn

NOTES: "[so] John came, baptizing in the wilderness and preaching"
EVIDENCE: A D K P W Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESV NIV TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The differences above are actually created by the inclusion and omission of two small words: "the" and "and." The same Greek phrase is translated "who was baptizing" and "the baptizer." The definite article (translated "who was" or "the") is in brackets in the UBS text. It is included here because it is found in several early manuscripts, but it may have been added to make a title following John's name. The evidence supporting the omission of "who was" is found in two different word orders. The word "and" is missing from manuscripts where copyists understood "the baptizer" as a title.

Mark 1:14:

TEXT: "Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 28* 33 565 892 some lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God"
EVIDENCE: A D K W Gamma Delta 28c 700 1241 Byz most lat syr(p) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "of the kingdom" seem to have been added from verse 15. There doesn't seem to be any good reason why copyists would have omitted them.

Mark 1:27:

TEXT: "What is this? A new teaching with authority! And he commands"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L 33 (700)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "What is this? What is this new teaching? because with authority he even commands"
EVIDENCE: (A) C K Gamma Delta Pi (ƒ13) 28c 892 1241 Byz most lat syr(p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: There are at least nine major variations of this text plus some minor ones. And with a change in punctuation the text reading can be translated "What is this? A new teaching! With authority he even commands" as the ASV, RSV, NRSVn and TEV render it. No punctuation marks are found in the original text. The evidence in parentheses contains minor variations. The text reading is the shorter one and copists were more likely to add than omit unless there was a mistake of the eye. The additions may come from the parallel passage in Luke 4:36.

Mark 1:29:

TEXT: "immediately they went out of the synagogue"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C K L Delta Pi 28 33 892 1010 1241 Byz vg syr some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "immediately he went out of the synagogue"
EVIDENCE: B D W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 lat some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSVn ESV NASVn

COMMENTS: It appears that the plural verbs have been changed to singular to make the passage read like the parallel passages in Matthew 8:14 and Luke 4:38. There are no independent pronouns in the Greek in this passage, but the pronouns are bound up in the verbs.

Mark 1:31:

TEXT: "the fever left her"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L W Theta ƒ1 28 33 565 700 892 one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "immediately the fever left her"
EVIDENCE: A (D) K Gamma Delta 0130 ƒ13 1241 Byz (most lat) syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: If the word "immediately" were original, there seems to be no good reason for copists to omit it. It appears to be added from verses 29 and 30.

Mark 1:34:

TEXT: "because they knew him."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* A D K Delta Pi 1010 Byz most lat vg syr(s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "because they knew him to be the Christ."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c B C L W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33vid 565 700 892 1241 most Lect one lat syr(h+) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASVn

COMMENTS: The addition "to be the Christ" is found in five different word orders, and seems to have been added here by copyists from Luke 4:41.

Mark 1:40:

TEXT: "and kneeling said to him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) L Theta ƒ1 565 892 1241 four lat vg syr(s,p) cop (north)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV ESV NASV2020 NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "and said to him"
EVIDENCE: B D W some Lect most lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn CSBn

NOTES: "and kneeling to him said to him"
EVIDENCE: A C K Delta Pi 090 ƒ13 28 33 700 1010 Byz most Lect syr(h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NASV95 NEB REB

COMMENTS: Since in the Greek the word for "and" is found both before and after "kneeling," it is possible that the omission of "kneeling" or "kneeling to him" happened accidently when copyists' eyes jumped from "and" to "and."

Mark 1:41:

TEXT: "And moved with pity, he stretched out [his] hand"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C K L W Delta Theta Pi 090 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "And being angry, he stretched out [his] hand"
EVIDENCE: D four lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEB REB TEVn CSBn

NOTES: "And he stretched out [his] hand"
EVIDENCE: one lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: It is easier to see why copyists might have changed "being angry" to "moved with pity" than to see why they would have changed "moved with pity" to "being angry." However, the evidence for "moved with pity" is so much stronger that it is retained in the text.

Mark 2:4:

TEXT: "they could not bring [the man] to him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Theta 33 892 three lat vg syr(h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSV NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "they could not come near him"
EVIDENCE: A C D K Delta Pi 090 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV ESV NEB REB CSBn

NOTES: "they could not come to him"
EVIDENCE: W
TRANSLATIONS: -

COMMENTS: Perhaps the fact that a direct object ("him" or "the man") is missing caused copyists to change "bring to" to "come near" or "come to."

Mark 2:16:

TEXT: "when the scribes of the Pharisees saw"
EVIDENCE: B W 28 syr(pal) {Aleph(א) L 33 Delta 0130vid one lat}
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "when the scribes and the Pharisees saw"
EVIDENCE: A C D K Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop(south) {cop(north)}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: It seems that many copyists changed the rare phrase "scribes of the Pharisees" to the common one "scribes and the Pharisees." The evidence listed in braces above adds an extra "and" and punctuates differently so as to make verses 15 and 16 read either ". . . there were many. And also the scribes of the Pharisees were following him. And they saw . . ." or ". . . there were many. And the scribes and the Pharisees were following him, and they saw . . . ."

Mark 2:16:

TEXT: "Does he eat with tax collectors and sinners?"
EVIDENCE: {Aleph(א)} B D W Theta some lat {one lat}
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV2020 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Does he eat and drink with tax collectors and sinners?"
EVIDENCE: A K Pi ƒ1 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect one lat syr(p,h,pal) {C L Delta ƒ13 three lat vg cop}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 CSBn

COMMENTS: It is more likely that "and drink" was added by copyists from the parallel in Luke 5:30 than that it was omitted because it was missing from the parallel in Matthew 9:11. Some of the evidence supporting the inclusion of "and drink" also changes the subject to "plyou," as in Luke 5:30. The evidence given above in braces makes the subject "plyour teacher," which was added by copyists from the parallel in Matthew 9:11.

Mark 2:18:

TEXT: "And John's desciples and the Pharisees"
EVIDENCE: p88 Aleph(א) A B C D K Theta ƒ13 565 1241 most lat syr(p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And the desciples of John and of the Pharisees"
EVIDENCE: L W Gamma Delta ƒ1 28 33 700 892 Byz few lat some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The change of "the Pharisees" from subject (nominative) to possessive (genitive) form was apparently done to match the latter part of the verb. Early manuscripts of multiple text types have the subject form. Manuscript W also adds the word "disciples" from the latter part of the verse to read "disciples of the Pharisees."

Mark 2:22:

TEXT: "and [so are] the wineskins; but new wine [is put] into fresh wineskins."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C K L W Delta Theta Pi 074 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "and [so are] the wineskins." EVIDENCE: D some lat
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn
COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the phrase missing from a few manuscripts was added from the parallel passages in Matthew 9:17 and Luke 5:38, the evidence is very strong that it was originally present. The reason for its omission is not clear, although it might have been accidently omitted because of the repetition of "wine" and "wineskins," but this was not a usual mistake of the eye, for these words have different endings in the two phrases. Most of the evidence listed above adds a verb, either "must be put," as in Luke 5:38, or "they put," as in Matthew 9:17. Only manuscripts Aleph(א)* and B omit the verb here and rely on the verb at the beginning of the verse.

Mark 2:26:

TEXT: "he entered into the house of God in [the time of] Abiathar [the] high priest, and ate"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B K L 892 1010 Byz some Lect some lat vg syr(p,h) some syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV NASV ESV? NIV? NEB? REB? TEV? CSB?
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "he entered into the house of God, and ate"
EVIDENCE: D W 1009 1546* some lat syr(s) some syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: -

NOTES: "he entered into the house of God in [the time of] Abiathar the high priest, and ate"
EVIDENCE: A C Theta Pi 074 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 1241 most Lect cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn ESV? NIV? NEB? REB? TEV? CSB?

OTHER: "he entered into the house of God in [the time of] Abiathar the priest, and ate"
EVIDENCE: Delta one lat

COMMENTS: The problem here revolves around the fact that Abiathar was not high priest at the time that David took the bread. His father, Ahimelech, was then high priest, and it was only later that Abiathar became high priest. The Greek idiom most naturally means "during the time that Abiathar was high priest." For this reason some copyists omitted the phrase. However, the phrase may have two other meanings: First, it may be that Jesus just mentions Abiathar with the highest title that he wore, thus meaning "in the time of Abiathar, who became high priest." The addition of "the" before "high priest" which some manuscripts have would make this meaning more possible in Greek. Second, it is also possible to translate the idiom "in [the passage about] Abiathar [the] high priest," as is found in Mark 12:26: "in [the passage about] the bush." A number of modern translations do not mark added words such as "the," making their underlying Greek text difficult to assertain.

Mark 3:14:

TEXT: "he appointed twelve, whom he also named apostles, so that"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C*vid W Delta Theta ƒ13 28 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSV ESV NASV73n NIV84 NIV2011n TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "he appointed twelve, so that"
EVIDENCE: A C2 D K L P Pi ƒ1 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg most syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn NASV NIV84n NIV2011 NEB REB CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "whom he also named apostles" are in brackets in the UBS text. Although they are contained by several early manuscripts and thus retained in the text, they may have been added by copyists from the parallel passage in Luke 6:13.

Mark 3:15:

TEXT: "and to have authority to cast out demons"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C* Delta 565 892
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and to have authority to cure diseases and to cast out demons"
EVIDENCE: A C2 D K P W Gamma Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 700 1241 Byz (lat) syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "to cure diseases and" are apparently added from Matthew 10:1 although the parallel is not exact.

Mark 3:16:

TEXT: "demons. And he appointed the twelve, even Simon, [to whom] he"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C* Delta 565
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV2n NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "demons: even Simon, [to whom] he"
EVIDENCE: A C2 D K L P Theta Pi ƒ1 28 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn CSBn

OTHER: "demons: first Simon, and to Simon he"
EVIDENCE: ƒ13 cop(south)

COMMENTS: The words "and he appointed the twelve" are in brackets in the UBS text. The words may have been added from the beginning of verse 14, either accidently when a copyist's eye jumped back to the wrong place, or deliberately, in order to smooth out the verse. On the other hand, since the same Greek word is translated both "and" and "even," it is possible that these words were accidently omitted when copyists' eyes skipped from "and" to "even."

Mark 3:22:

TEXT: "He has [the demon] Beelzebul"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C D L W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 Maj lat some vg syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV84n NIV2011 REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "He has [the demon] Beezebul"
EVIDENCE: B
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn NIV84n

NOTES: "He has [the demon] Beelzebub"
EVIDENCE: most vg syr(s,p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV* NASVn NIV84 NEB

COMMENTS: "Beelzebul" is the Greek spelling of the Hebrew word "Baal-Zebub," which means "lord of flies." It has passed through Latin into English as Beelzebub. It is used in the New Testament to refer to the devil.

Mark 3:29:

TEXT: "whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B {C*vid D{ L {W} Delta Theta {ƒ13} 28 33 565 892* {syr(s)}
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is liable of an eternal judgment"
EVIDENCE: A C2 K Gamma ƒ1 700 892c 1241 Byz some lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The same Greek word can be translated either "guilty" or "liable." The evidence in braces has a more common spelling for "sin" than that found in the oldest manuscripts. The reading "sin" is found in early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Mark 3:32:

TEXT: "your mother and your brothers and your sisters are outside"
EVIDENCE: A D 700 1010 some lat syr(h)margin
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSV ESVn NASV73n TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "your mother and your brothers are outside"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C K L W Delta Theta Pi 074 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 892 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "and your sisters" are in brackets in the UBS text, because they are omitted in so many manuscripts. While it is possible that they were added by copyists as a natural addition from verse 35, it is also possible that they were omitted accidently, when copyists' eyes jumped from "your" to "your" ("your" follows "brothers" and "sisters" in Greek).

Mark 4:12:

TEXT: "[their sin] should be forgiven them."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L W ƒ1 28* 892* one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "the sins should be forgiven them."
EVIDENCE: A D K {Delta} Theta ƒ13 28c 33 565 {700} 892c {1241} Byz most lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: It is likely that "the sins" was added by copists for clarity because the clause is missing a definite subject. However, the subject added is plural while the verb calls for a singular subject. A number of English translation omit the awkward "them." The evidence in braces resds "their sins."

Mark 4:15:

TEXT: "Satan immediately comes and takes away the word which has been sown in them"
EVIDENCE: (Aleph(א)) B (C L) W (Delta) ƒ1 ƒ13 28 (892)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Satan immediately comes and takes away the word which has been sown in their hearts"
EVIDENCE: D K Theta 33 565 700 1241 Byz lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "Satan immediately comes and takes away the word which has been sown from their hearts"
EVIDENCE: A

COMMENTS: The expansion about hearts seems to have been taken from the parallels in Matthew 13:19 and Luke 8:12.

Mark 4:40:

TEXT: "Why are plyou cowardly? Do plyou not yet have faith?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Delta Theta 565 700 892* most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV (omit "yet") NRSV NASV95+ TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "Why are plyou cowardly like this? How [is it that] plyou do not have faith?"
EVIDENCE: A C K Pi 33 1010 1241 Byz Lect one lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NASV73

NOTES: "Why are plyou cowardly like this? Do plyou not yet have faith?"
EVIDENCE: p45vid ƒ1 ƒ13 28 (omit "are") 892margin
TRANSLATIONS: ESV NIV [NEB REB ("such cowards")]

COMMENTS: The reading in the text is found in early manuscripts of several different types of ancient text.

Mark 5:1:

TEXT: "to the country of the Gerasenes."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B D lat vg cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "to the country of the Gergesenes."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c L Delta Theta ƒ1 28 33 565 700 892 1241 Lect syr(s) syr(h)margin cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn CSBn

NOTES: "to the country of the Gadarenes."
EVIDENCE: A C K Pi ƒ13 1010 Byz syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Gerasa, Gadara, and Gergesa were all cities of the region called Decapolis, so each reading would refer to the same country. Gerasa was the largest city, most likely to be known by Gentiles; Gadara was the closest to the Sea of Galilee, most likely to be known by Jews. It seems most likely that "Gerasenes" was original here and in Luke 8:26, 37, while "Gadarenes" was original in Matthew 8:28. The reading "Gergesenes" seems to have been proposed by Origen, and added to manuscripts under his influence.

Mark 5:12:

TEXT: "[the demons] appealed to him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L (W) Delta ƒ113 28) 892
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV? ESV NASV NIV? NEB? REB? TEV? CSB?
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "all the demons appealed to him"
EVIDENCE: A {D K} Theta 33 565 700 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The phrase "all the demons" seems to have been added by copists for clarification of the subject. The evidence in braces omits the word "all." The translations with question marks do not mark added words.

Mark 5:14:

TEXT: "those who fed them fled"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D L Delta lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "those who fed the pigs fled"
EVIDENCE: A Pi Byz syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV? TEV? CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "the pigs" were apparently substituted for "them" for clarification. The text is supported by early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Mark 5:21:

TEXT: "when Jesus had crossed again in the boat to the other side"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A (B) C K L N (W) Delta Pi 0107vid 0132 0134 ƒ13 33 892 1010 1241 Byz three old lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "when Jesus had crossed again to the other side"
EVIDENCE: p45vid
D Theta ƒ1 28 565 700 most old lat syr(s) TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "in the boat" are in brackets in the UBS text. Although there would be no good reason to omit the words and the word order is different in different manuscripts, the presence of the words in early manuscripts and the majority of manuscripts would seem to indicate that they are original.

Mark 5:36:

TEXT: "But overhearing what was being spoken"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b B L W Delta 892* one lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "But hearing what was being spoken"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a A C D K Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892c 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: The Greek word translated "overhearing" above can also be translated "ignoring." It is possible that this ambiguity caused copyists to replace it with the simple word "hearing" found in the parallel in Luke 8:50.

Mark 6:2:

TEXT: "and many who heard [him] were astonished"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C D K W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 33 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NIV TEV? CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "and the many who heard [him] were astonished"
EVIDENCE: B L ƒ13 28 892
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV NEB REB TEV?

COMMENTS: All but a few Greek manuscripts leave out the word "the." The translations cannot be used as evidence for the presence or absence of the definite article.

Mark 6:3:

TEXT: "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C D K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 28 892 1010 1241 Byz most Lect some lat vg syr(p,h) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "Is not this the son of the carpenter and Mary"
EVIDENCE: p45vid ƒ13 33vid 565 700 a few Lect some lat some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEBn REBn

OTHER: "Is not this the son of Mary"
EVIDENCE: syr(pal)

COMMENTS: Some copyists changed the text to be like the parallel in Matthew 13:55, probably in order to reduce the ridicule from pagans for following a lowly "carpenter."

Mark 6:11:

TEXT: "for a testimony against them."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D L W Delta Theta 28txt 565 892* most lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "for a testimony against them. Truly, I say to †you, it will be more tolerable in the day of judgment for Sodom and Gomorrah than for that city."
EVIDENCE: A K N ƒ1 ƒ13 28mg 33 700 892c 1241 Byz some lat syr{p,h} some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently the extra words have been added from the parallel in Matthew 10:15. They are missing from early manuscripts in multiple text types.

Mark 6:14:

TEXT: "And [some] were saying"
EVIDENCE: B W four lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "And he was saying"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A C K L Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn NEBn REBn CSBn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that copyists changed the singular to the plural because of the plurals in verse 15, it more likely that the singulars in verses 14 and 16 influenced them to change the plural to the singular. The difference in spelling is one vowel.

Mark 6:20:

TEXT: "he was much perplexed"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W Theta one Lect cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "he was doing many things"
EVIDENCE: A C D K Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NIVn CSBn

COMMENTS: While it has been suggested that the reading "perplexed" was taken from Luke 9:7 where it is said that Herod was very perplexed or puzzled regarding what he heard about Jesus, the fact that Luke 9:7 contains a different form of the same root word in a different context makes this not likely. This more meaningful reading is found in the UBS text because it is found in early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Caesarean types of ancient text.

Mark 6:22:

TEXT: "his [step-]daughter by Herodias came in"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Delta 565
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSV TEVn CSBn
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "the daughter of Herodias herself came in"
EVIDENCE: A C K W Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NRSVn NASV CSB

NOTES: "the daughter of Herodias came in"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1 some lat syr(s,p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: RSV ESV NIV NEB REB TEV

COMMENTS: The phrase translated "his [step-]daughter by Herodias" (literally, "his daughter of Herodias") can also be translated "his daughter Herodias." It is probably more natural to read it this way. Since Herodias was the wife's name and Josephus gives the daughters' name as Salome, it was natural for copyists to change "his" to "herself" or to omit it altogether in order to avoid what might be taken as a mistake in the Bible. It is probable that the omission of "herself" in the RSV, ESV, NIV, NEB, REB, and TEV is more due to making a smooth translation than following a suspect text. It is possible to translate the step-daughter's name as Herodias which the NRSV and CSBn does.

Mark 6:33:

TEXT: "and got [there] ahead of them"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B 0187 892 most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "and got [there] ahead of them and came together to him"
EVIDENCE: p84vid A K (N) Gamma ƒ13 Byz two lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTTHER: " and came [there] to them"
EVIDENCE: {L} Delta Theta {1241}

OTTHER: " and came together to him"
EVIDENCE: D 28 700 one lat

OTTHER: " and came to him"
EVIDENCE: (ƒ1) 565 old lat

COMMENTS: The reading in the notes is apparently a combination of the Alexandrian reading in the text and the Western reading of manuscript D. There is only a one letter difference between "got [there] ahead" and "came [there] to." Manuscript W omits all of these readings.

Mark 6:51:

TEXT: "they were very greatly astounded within themselves, for"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Delta 28 892 four lat vg syr(s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV ESV NASV ("astonished") NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "they were very greatly astounded within themselves and marveled, for"
EVIDENCE: A D K W X Theta Pi ƒ13 33 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat syr(h) {syr(p)-"marveled and were astounded"}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

OTHER: "they were very greatly astonished within themselves, for"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1

COMMENTS: The addition of "and marveled" seems to be a heightening of the story by copyists using the same combination of words found in Acts 2:7

Mark 7:3:

TEXT: "unless they ceremonially wash [their] hands"
EVIDENCE: A B D K L X Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat syr(h)margin
TRANSLATIONS: NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "unless they wash [their] hands"
EVIDENCE: Delta syr(s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NEB REB

NOTES: "unless they frequently wash [their] hands"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) W three lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NEBn REBn

COMMENTS: The word translated "ceremonially" literally means "with a fist." Since the exact ceremony referred to is unknown, some copyists omitted the word while others replaced it with a word that makes more sense.

Mark 7:4:

TEXT: "they do not eat unless they immerse [themselves]"
EVIDENCE: A D K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESV NASV2020 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "they do not eat unless they sprinkle [themselves]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSVn ESVn NASV95 NASV2020n

COMMENTS: The word "immerse" seems to have been changed to "sprinkle" by copyists who had difficulty imagining that the Pharisees took a full bath after coming from the market place. The footnote reading can also be translated: "and they do not eat [anything] from the market place unless they sprinkle [it]" (see RSV 2nd edition footnote, which is not in fact a textual footnote, but a translational one).

Mark 7:4:

TEXT: "the immersings of cups and pots and copper vessels and cots."
EVIDENCE: A D K W X Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28c 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ("tables") ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESV NIVn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "the immersings of cups and pots and copper vessels."
EVIDENCE: p45vid Aleph(א) B L Delta 28* one Lect cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB TEVn CSBn

OTHER: "the immersings of cups and pots"
EVIDENCE: syr(s)

COMMENTS: The words "and cots" are in brackets in the UBS text because they are absent from several early manuscripts. It has been suggested that they were added from Leviticus 15, but it is much more likely that they were omitted either accidently by a mistake of the eye (the Greek words for "copper vessels" and "cots" both end in the same letters) or deliberately by copyists who had trouble imagining the immersings of cots by the Pharisees.

Mark 7:5:

TEXT: "eat [their] bread with defiled hands"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B (D W) Theta ƒ1 (28) 33 (565) 700 most lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "eat [their] bread with unwashed hands"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 A K L Gamma Delta 892 1241Byz old lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "eat [their] bread with defiled and unwashed hands"
EVIDENCE: p45 ƒ13
COMMENTS: The word "unwashed" was apparently taken from verse 2. The text reading "defiled" (literally, "common") is found in early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Mark 7:8:

TEXT: "are holding to the tradition of men."
EVIDENCE: p45 Aleph(א) B L W Delta 0274 ƒ1 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "are holding to the tradition of men, immersings of pots and cups and plyou do many other such things like [this]"
EVIDENCE: A {D} (K) {Theta 0131vid} ƒ13 {28} 33 {565} 700 892 (1241) Byz lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra words are apparently taken from verses 4 and 13. The evidence in braces has the extra words at the beginning of verse 8 rather than at the end. The early manuscripts that have the extra words show a number of variations and omissions of words.

Mark 7:9:

TEXT: "so that plyou may establish plyour tradition!"
EVIDENCE: D W Theta ƒ1 28 565 most lat syr(s,p)
TRANSLATIONS: ESV NIVn NEBn REBn TEV? ("uphold") CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "so that plyou may keep plyour tradition!"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B K L X Delta Pi ƒ13 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect two lat vg syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV? CSBn

COMMENTS: The UBS committee had a difficult time deciding between these two readings, but finally decided that the phrase "the commandment of God" might have caused copyists to substitute the word "keep" for "establish." Most English translators, on the other hand, seem to feel that the reading "keep" has stronger manuscript evidence.

Mark 7:16:

TEXT: omit verse 16
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Delta* 28 most Lect some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NKJVn ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSV
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: include verse 16: "If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear."
EVIDENCE: A D K W X Deltac Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz some Lect lat vg syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 (in brackets) NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Verse 16 is missing from several important manuscripts. It may have been added here from Mark 4:9 or 4:23.

Mark 7:19:

TEXT: "he declared* all foods clean"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B L W X Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 892 1241 some Byz syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "it makes all foods clean"
EVIDENCE: K P 33 700 1010 some Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The difference in the two readings is between the masculine form in the text and the neuter form in the notes, making the subject to either refer to Jesus or the food that enters the mouth. The Western reading (D lat) is ambiguous between the two subjects. The text reading has much earlier support.

Mark 7:24:

TEXT: "went away into the region of Tyre."
EVIDENCE: D L W Delta Theta 28 565 some lat syr(s,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSV ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "went away into the region of Tyre and Sidon."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B K X Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASVn NIVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although the words "and Sidon" might have been deleted here by copyists who saw that verse 31 says Jesus left the region of Tyre and went through Sidon, it is more likely that they were added here from the parallel verse in Matthew 15:21.

Mark 7:28:

TEXT: "she answered by saying to him, 'Lord,'"
EVIDENCE: p45 D W Theta ƒ13 565 700 two Lect some lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV NIV2011 NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "she answered by saying to him, 'Yes, Lord'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B K L X Delta Pi ƒ1 28 33 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NASVn ESV NASV NIV84

COMMENTS: It is likely that the word "yes" was added here by copyists from the parallel in Matthew 15:27. The word "yes" occurs nowhere else in Mark.


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