A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

Matt. 18:26-28:6


Matthew 18:26:

TEXT: "saying, 'Have patience with me'"
EVIDENCE: B D Theta 700 some Lect some lat vg syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "saying, 'Lord, have patience with me'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) K L W Delta Pi 058 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz most Lect most lat syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the word "Lord" was omitted by copyists to make verse 26 read like verse 29, it is more likely that it was added to make clear a spiritual application of the parable. The word is missing from early manuscripts of several different kinds of ancient text.

Matthew 18:29:

TEXT: "his fellow slave fell down and started appealing to him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C* D L Theta 058 ƒ1 700 892 most lat syr(s,c) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV [NASV (to the ground)] [NIV (to his knees)] TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "his fellow slave fell down at his feet and started appealing to him"
EVIDENCE: C2 K W Gamma Delta ƒ13 33 565 1241 Byz few lat syr(p,h) middle cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NEB REB CSBn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the omission of "at his feet" is due to a mistake of the eye, it is more likely that it is a natural expansion since it is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Matthew 18:35:

TEXT: "if each one of plyou does not forgive his brother from plyour hearts"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Theta ƒ1 700 892* most lat syr(s,c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "if each one of plyou does not forgive his brother their trespasses from plyour hearts"
EVIDENCE: C K W Gamma Delta ƒ13 33 565 892c 1241 Byz few lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "their trespasses" seem to have been added by scribes who remembered the similar wording in Matthew 6:14. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types. The plural word "their" does not fit with the singular "brother." The NKJV changes the plural "their" to the singular "his" but no manuscript reads the singular.

Matthew 19:3:

TEXT: "And Pharisees came up to him and tested him"
EVIDENCE: p25vid B C L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 892 1010 cop(north) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And the Pharisees came up to him and tested him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) D K 28 1241 Byz Lect most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn

COMMENTS: Copyists were known to add the definite article.

Matthew 19:4:

TEXT: "the One who created [them] from the beginning made them male and female"
EVIDENCE: B Theta ƒ1 700 syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn ESV NASV [NEB REB (Creator)] TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "the One who made [them] from the beginning made them male and female"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C D K L W Delta Pi ƒ13 28 565 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(c,s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV NIV CSBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that "created" was introduced into the text as a literal translation of the Hebrew reading in Genesis 1:27 (perhaps by Origen), it is more likely that "created" was changed by copyists to its synonym "made" to make it agree with the Greek Old Testament rendering of that verse, which reads "made."

Matthew 19:9:

TEXT: "whoever divorces his wife, except for fornication, and marries another, commits adultery."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C3 K L W Delta Theta Pi 078 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect one lat vg syr(s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "whoever divorces his wife, unless it is a matter of fornication, and marries another, commits adultery."
EVIDENCE: D ƒ13 33 most lat syr(c) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB TEV

NOTES: "whoever divorces his wife, except for fornication, and marries another, makes her commit adultery."
EVIDENCE: C* 1216
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn

NOTES: "whoever divorces his wife, unless it is a matter of fornication, makes her commit adultery"
EVIDENCE: p25vid B ƒ1 one Lect one lat cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn

NOTES: "whoever divorces his wife, except for fornication, makes her commit adultery."
EVIDENCE: N
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn ESVn

OTHER: "whoever divorces his wife, unless it is a matter of fornication, and marries another, makes her commit adultery."
EVIDENCE: syr(pal)

COMMENTS: Some copyists changed the text here to read like Matthew 5:32.

Matthew 19:9:

TEXT: "adultery."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C3 D L 1241 1546 many lat syr(c,s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "adultery; and the one who marries a divorced woman commits adultery."
EVIDENCE: p25 B C* K W Delta Theta Pi 078 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NEBn REVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Some copyists added this clause with several variations of grammar from Matthew 5:32.

Matthew 19:16:

TEXT: "said, 'Teacher, what good thing should I do'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L ƒ1 892text 1010 1365 four lat some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "said, 'Good teacher, what good thing should I do'"
EVIDENCE: C K W Delta Theta ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892margin 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn

COMMENTS: The word "good" here seems to have been added by copyists from the parallel passages in Mark 10:17 and Luke 18:18. It is missing from early manuscripts of both Alexandrian and Western kinds of ancient text.

Matthew 19:17:

TEXT: "Why do you ask me about what [is] good? There is [only] One who is good."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Theta ƒ1 700 892text two lat syr(s) some syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Why do you call me good? No one [is] good except One, [that is], God."
EVIDENCE: C K W Delta ƒ13 28 33 565 1010 1241 Byz Lect two lat syr(p,h) cop(south) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn CSBn

OTHER: "Why do you ask me about what [is] good? There is [only] One who is good, [that is], God."
EVIDENCE: most lat vg syr(c) some syr(pal) most cop(north)

OTHER: "Why do you ask me about what [is] good? No one is good except One, [that is], God."
EVIDENCE: 892margin two lat

COMMENTS: The reading in the notes seems to have been taken from the parallel passages in Mark 10:18 and Luke 18:19. The reading in the text is found in Caesarean as well as Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text.

Matthew 19:20:

TEXT: "All these I have kept"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B L Theta ƒ1 700* some lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "All these I have kept from my youth"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 C D K W Gamma Delta ƒ13 33 565 700c 892 1241 Byz some lat syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "from my youth" were apparently added from the parallel passages in Mark 10:20 and Luke 18:21.

Matthew 19:29:

TEXT: "sisters or father or mother or children"
EVIDENCE: B 2148 two lat syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "sisters or father or mother or wife or children"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C K L W X Delta Theta ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NASVn CSBn

OTHER: "sisters or mother or wife or children"
EVIDENCE: syr(c)

OTHER: "sisters or mother or children"
EVIDENCE: D four lat syr(s)

OTHER: "sisters or parents or children"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1 one lat

COMMENTS: The omission of "or father" from several manuscripts seems to have been a mistake of the eye. The change from "or father or mother" to "or parents" was borrowed from the parallel passage in Luke 18:29. While it is quite possible that "or wife" was omitted from the list to make it read the same as Mark 10:29, it is also possible that it was added by copyists from Luke 18:29. The word "wife" is omitted in the UBS text since it is missing from early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western types of text.

Matthew 19:29:

TEXT: "will receive a hundredfold"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C D K W X Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(c,s,p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "will receive many times more"
EVIDENCE: B L 1010 syr(pal) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV NEB REB

COMMENTS: The text of Matthew was either changed to read like Mark 10:30 ("a hundredfold") or like Luke 18:30 ("many times more"). The reading "a hundredfold" was chosen because the evidence seems to be greater for it, and because Matthew and Mark more often originally read the same than Matthew and Luke.

Matthew 20:6:

TEXT: " he went out and found others standing"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C2 D L Theta 085 33 565 700 892 most lat syr(s,c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: " he went out and found others standing idle"
EVIDENCE: C*,3 K W Gamma Delta ƒ1 ƒ13 1241 Byz few lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "idle" here is apparently borrowed from verse 3 and later in verse 6. It is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Matthew 20:7:

TEXT: "plYou also go into the vineyard"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Z Theta 085 ƒ1 892* most lat syr(s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "plYou also go into the vineyard, and whatever is right I will give plyou"
EVIDENCE: C K N W Gamma Delta ƒ13 33 565 700 892c 1241 Byz few lat syr(c,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra phrase is apparently borrowed from verse 4. It is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types. Manuscripts D C3 N Z 085 565 1241 add the word "my" to vineyard.

Matthew 20:16:

TEXT: "So the last will be first, and the first last."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Z 085 892* cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "So the last will be first, and the first last. For many are called, but few [are] chosen."
EVIDENCE: C D K N W Gamma Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892c 1241 Byz lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: This additional sentence is apparantly borrowed from Matthew 22:14. Although it is found in the majority of manuscripts starting with the fifth century, and both sentences end in the Greek letters for toi, such a mistake of the eye seems unlikely and there is no good reason for fourth century manuscripts to delete the sentence.

Matthew 20:19:

TEXT: "on the third day he will be raised"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C* L N Z 892
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "on the third day he will rise"
EVIDENCE: B C2 D K W Gamma Delta Theta 085 ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading in the notes was apparently borrowed from the parallels in Mark 10:34 and Luke 18:33.

Matthew 20:22:

TEXT: "Are plyou able to drink the cup that I am going to drink?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Z Theta 085 ƒ1 ƒ13 most lat syr(s,c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Are plyou able to drink the cup that I am going to drink, or to be immersed [in] the immersion [in] which I am immersed?"
EVIDENCE: C K N W Gamma Delta 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz few lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional clause has apparently been added to Matthew from the parallel in Mark 10:38. It is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Matthew 20:23:

TEXT: "plyou will drink my cup"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Z Theta 085 ƒ1 ƒ13 most lat syr(s,c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "plyou will drink my cup, and the immersion which I am immersed [in], plyou will be immersed [in]"
EVIDENCE: C K N W Gamma Delta 33 565 700 1241 Byz few lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional clause has apparently been added to Matthew from the parallel in Mark 10:39. It is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Matthew 20:30:

TEXT: "Have mercy on us, Lord, Son of David"
EVIDENCE: p45vid C K W X Gamma Delta Pi ƒ1 28 33 1010 1241 Byz Lect two lat syr(p,h) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV? TEV
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "Have mercy on us, Son of David"
EVIDENCE: D 565 some lat syr(c)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSVn ESVn NEB REB

NOTES: "Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David"
EVIDENCE: B 085 some lat vg some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSVn NRSV ESV NASV NIV? CSB

OTHER: "Have mercy on us, Jesus, Son of David"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) Theta ƒ13 700 some lat some syr(pal)

OTHER: "Lord, have mercy on us, Jesus, Son of David"
EVIDENCE: L 892 some syr(pal) some cop

COMMENTS: The word "Lord" is in brackets in the UBS text. The name "Jesus" was apparently borrowed from parallel passages in Mark 10:47 and Luke 18:38. It is possible that "Lord" was dropped from this passage in an effort to make it read like Matthew 9:27. It may have been added from verse 31, but manuscript D is noted for omitting text. In trying to decide between the readings that have "Lord" first or last, the reading that begins with Lord is more liturgical and copyists were more likely to change the text to put "Lord" first. Witness the NIV which moves "Lord, Son of David" to the first position. The same thing is also found in the word order of verse 31, where several manuscripts have "Lord" at the beginning of the statement.

Matthew 21:12:

TEXT: "Jesus entered into the temple and drove out"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Theta ƒ13 33 700 892 1010 one lat syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Jesus entered into the temple of God and drove out"
EVIDENCE: C D K W X Delta Pi ƒ1 28 565 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The addition of "of God" would be a natural expansion for copyists to make, although it is not found in the parallel passages in Mark 11:15 and Luke 19:45. The tendency was for copyists to add material from parallel passages, not to delete material, in order to make them exactly alike.

Matthew 21:29-31b:

TEXT: "And he answered by saying, 'I do not wish to'; but afterwards he regretted [it] and went. And he went to the other and said the same thing; and he answered by saying, 'I [will go], sir,' but did not go. Which of the two did the will of his father?" They said*, "The first."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C K L W X ƒ1 28 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat vg syr(c,p,h) some syr(pal) some cop(south) {D? most lat? syr(s)?}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV71n NASV95 NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And he answered by saying, 'I [will go], sir,' but did not go. And he went to the second and said the same thing; and he answered by saying, 'I do not wish to'; afterwards he regretted [it] and went. Which of the two did the will of his father?" They said*, "The latter."
EVIDENCE: B Theta ƒ13 4 273 700 some syr(pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: NASV71 NEB REB

COMMENTS: In both readings there are variations between "the other" and "the second" in verse 30 and as to whether to include the word "but." But in the reading found in the notes there are many more variations, especially in the answer in verse 31: "the latter," "the last," or "the second." Surprisingly manuscript D, most latin manuscripts, and the Sinaitic Syriac text support the order of the text reading, but give the answer in verse 31 as "the last"! Such a reading is nonsense and misses the point and is obviously not original. The manuscript evidence for the text reading seems to be better than that for the reading in the notes.

Matthew 21:44:

TEXT: include verse 44: "And the one who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; but on whomever it falls, it will crush him."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect many lat vg syr(c,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn RSVCE NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REVn TEVn CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: omit verse 44
EVIDENCE: D 33 some lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV RSVCEn NRSVn ESVn NIVn NEB REB TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: Verse 44 is in double brackets in the UBS text. It may have been borrowed by copyists from the similar passage in Luke 20:18. However, it is also quite possible that its omission is due to a mistake of the eye when a copyist's eye jumped from the "And" at the beginning of verse 44 to the "And" at the beginning of verse 45.

Matthew 22:7:

TEXT: "the king was angry"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L 085 ƒ1 700 892* most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "when that king hesrd, he was angry"
EVIDENCE: C D K W Delta {Theta) 0102 (ƒ13) 33vid 565 700 892c 1241 Byz (lat syr(p)) syr(h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading in the notes is found with numerous word orders and the word for "that" is missing from the Textua Receptus followed by the King James Version as well as the evidence listed above in parentheses.

Matthew 22:10:

TEXT: "the wedding [hall] was filled with guests"
EVIDENCE: B1 D K W Delta Theta 085 0161vid ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "the wedding hall was filled with guests"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B* L 0102 892
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The text reading can also be translated "wedding [celebration]"; the word translated "wedding hall" in the notes also means "bridal chamber." The notes raading seems to be an Alexandrian change to go with the verb "filled."

Matthew 22:13:

TEXT: "Bind his feet and hands"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Theta 085 ƒ113) 700 892 most lat (syr(p)) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Bind his feet and hands, take him away"
EVIDENCE: C K W Delta 0102 33 565 1241 Byz one lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "Take him away his feet and hands"
EVIDENCE: D most old lat (syr(s,c))
COMMENTS: The reading in the notes seems to be a combination of the Alexandrian and Western readings. Some manuscripts read "hands and feet."

Matthew 22:21:

TEXT: "They said to him, 'Caesar's.'"
EVIDENCE: D L W Z Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 Byz lat vg syr(s,c,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NASV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "They said, 'Caesar's.'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB REB TEV

COMMENTS: Mark has "they said to him" while Luke has "they said." It is probable that copyists changed Matthew to be like one or the other.

Matthew 22:23:

TEXT: "Sadducees came to him, saying that there is no resurrection"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B D W Pi* ƒ1 28 33 892 1010 1241 some Lect two lat syr(c,s,p)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSV NEB TEV
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Sadducees came to him, those who say that there is no resurrection"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c K L Delta Theta Pi2 ƒ13 565 700 Byz most Lect most lat vg syr(h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV NIV REB CSB

COMMENTS: The difference between the two readings is between the absence (text) or presence (notes) of the word "the". A most literal translation of the notes would be "the [ones] saying." While it is possible that the word "the" was accidently omitted through a mistake of the eye (in the Greek it is spelled like the ending of the word "Sadducees"), it is more likely that the text was changed to make it read like the parallel passage in Luke 20:27. See also the similar parallel in Mark 12:18.

Matthew 22:30:

TEXT: "are like angels in heaven"
EVIDENCE: B D Theta ƒ1 700 most lat syr(c,s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "are like angels of God in heaven"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) K L W Delta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect four lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn NASVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the words "of God" were omitted to make this passage read like Mark 12:25, it was not usual for copyists to omit material in making parallel passages the same; rather they would add the additional material to the place where it was missing. They words are omitted from the UBS text because they are missing from manuscripts of several types of ancient text.

Matthew 22:32:

TEXT: " He is not the God of the dead, but of the living."
EVIDENCE: (Aleph(א) B (D) L (W) Delta ƒ1 33
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: " God is not the God of the dead, but of the living."
EVIDENCE: K Gamma Theta 0102 ƒ13 565 700 892 1241 Byz syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV REB CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently later manuscripts repeated the word "God" to make the subject clear. Earlier manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western text types only have the word "God" one time. The manuscripts listed in parentheses omit the word "the."

Matthew 22:35:

TEXT: "one of them, a lawyer, asked [him a question]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D F G H K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "one of them asked [him a question]"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1 one lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB REB

COMMENTS: The word "lawyer" is in brackets in the UBS text, because it may have been borrowed from the parallel passage in Luke 10:25. It is included here in the text because the great majority of manuscripts include it.

Matthew 22:44:

TEXT: "until I put your enemies underneath your feet"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Z Gamma Theta ƒ13 892 most old lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "until I put your enemies as a footstool for your feet"
EVIDENCE: K W Delta 0102 0161 0281 ƒ1 33 565 700 1241 Byz most lat middle cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently copists changed "underneath" to "footstool" to read like Luke 20:43 or more likely like Psalm 110:1 (Psalm 109:1 in the Greek Old Testament).

Matthew 23:4:

TEXT: "they bind heavy and hard to carry loads"
EVIDENCE: B D K W Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(h,pal) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "they bind heavy loads"
EVIDENCE: L ƒ1 892 some lat syr(c,s,p) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB CSB

OTHER: "they bind great loads"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)

OTHER: "they bind hard to carry loads"
EVIDENCE: 700 1010

COMMENTS: The words "and hard to carry" are in brackets in the UBS text, because it is possible that they were added from the parallel passage in Luke 11:46. However, since in Greek the noun "loads" precedes the adjectives "heavy and hard to carry," the word "and" comes right after "hard to carry." Thus it is more likely that the omission of "and hard to carry" was due to a mistake of the eye when copyists accidently skipped from one "and" to the other.

Matthew 23:5:

TEXT: "they make their phylacteries wide and their tassels large"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D Theta ƒ1 most lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "they make their phylacteries wide and their tassels on their cloaks large"
EVIDENCE: K L W Gamma Delta 0102 0107 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz some lat cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV NEB REB TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "on their cloaks" seems to be a natural addition, perhaps influenced by Matthew 9:20. They are missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types. The ASV and NASV have the natural expansion "of their garments" in italics showing it is not in the Greek text they are translating. The same may be true of other modern translations that do not use italics.

Matthew 23:8:

TEXT: "One is plyour Teacher"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 892* lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "One is plyour Teacher, the Christ"
EVIDENCE: K Gamma Delta 0102 700 892c 1241 Byz syr(c,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The clarification "the Christ" seems to be borrowed from verse 10.

Matthew 23:14:

TEXT: omit verse 14
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Theta ƒ1 33 892text 1344 some lat early vg syr(s) some syr(pal) cop(south) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV95n NASV20 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: include verse 14: "Woe to plyou, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because plyou devour widows' houses and for a pretense plyou make long prayers; for this [reason] plyou will receive the greater condemnation."
EVIDENCE: ƒ13 some lat later vg syr(c) some syr(pal) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 (in brackets) NASV20n NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

NOTES: include verse 14 after verse 12
EVIDENCE: K W Delta Pi 28 565 700 892margin 1010 1241 Byz Lect one lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: Since the verse is absent from early manuscripts of the Alexandrian, Caesarean, and Western types of ancient text, and is found in two different places, it seems that it was added from the parallel passages in Mark 12:40 and Luke 20:47.

Matthew 23:19:

TEXT: "[plYou] blind [men]!"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) D L Z Theta ƒ1 892 most lat syr(s,c)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "[plYou] fools and blind [men]!"
EVIDENCE: B C K W Gamma Delta 0102 ƒ13 33 565 700 1241 Byz few lat syr(p,h) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra words seem to be added from verse 17.

Matthew 23:26:

TEXT: "First clean the inside of the cup, so that the outside of it may also be clean."
EVIDENCE: D Theta ƒ1 700 some lat (three omit "of it") syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: [NRSV NEB REB TEV (omit "of it")] CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "First clean the inside of the cup and of the dish, so that the outside of them may also be clean."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B2 C K L W Delta Pi 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz most Lect syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

NOTES: "First clean the inside of the cup and of the dish, so that the outside of it may also be clean."
EVIDENCE: B* ƒ13 28 some Lect
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NASV CSBn

NOTES: "First clean the inside of the cup and of the dish, so that the outside may also be clean."
EVIDENCE: X some lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSVn ESV NIV

COMMENTS: Although the manuscript evidence seems to favor the inclusion of "and the dish," the reading "of it" by manuscripts B* and 28 and family 13 seems to indicate that it was missing from an older manuscript from which they were copied. It is likely that it was added from the previous verse 25.

Matthew 23:35:

TEXT: "the blood of Zechariah the son of Barachiah"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c B D K W Gamma Delta Theta 0102 ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 lat syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "the blood of Zechariah"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*
TRANSLATIONS: ESVn

COMMENTS: The omission of "son of Barachiah" seems to be to remove the problem of identifying this Zaechariah with the one in 2 Chronicles 24:20-22.

Matthew 23:38:

TEXT: "plyour house is left to plyou desolate."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C D K W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "plyour house is left to plyou."
EVIDENCE: B L one Lect one lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn NASVn NEB REBn

COMMENTS: While "desolate" may have been added by copyists from Jeremiah 22:5, it is more likely that it was deleted as a stylistic improvement since it is superfluous in Greek.

Matthew 24:6:

TEXT: "for [this] has to happen"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Theta ƒ1 33 892 one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "for all [this] has to happen"
EVIDENCE: C K O W Delta Pi Sigma ƒ13 28 700 1010 Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV

OTHER: "for these things have to happen"
EVIDENCE: 565 most lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: [NEB REB "such things"] CSB

OTHER: "for all these things have to happen"
EVIDENCE: 1241 one lat syr(p,h,pal)

COMMENTS: It seems certain that "these things" was added by copyists from the parallel in Luke 21:9. The evidence for "all" is stronger, but it is a natural addition, perhaps from verses 2, 8 and 34, and is missing from early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text.

Matthew 24:7:

TEXT: "there will be famines and earthquakes in [various] places"
EVIDENCE: (Aleph(א) B D 892 several lat syr(s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "there will be famines and epidemics and earthquakes in [various] places"
EVIDENCE: C K (L W) Gamma Delta Theta 0102 ƒ1 ƒ13 (33) 700 1241 Byz (most lat) syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "and epidemics" are apparently added from the parallel in Luke 21:11. They are missing from early manuscripsts of multiple text types. The evidence in parentheses has different word orders.

Matthew 24:31:

TEXT: "he will send out his angels with [the sound of] a loud trumpet"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) L W X(margin) Delta Theta ƒ1 700 892text one lat syr(s,p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NASV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "he will send out his angels with a loud sound of a trumpet"
EVIDENCE: B K X(text) Pi 28 33 565 892margin Byz Lect syr(h+,pal) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV

OTHER: "he will send out his angels with a trumpet and loud sound"
EVIDENCE: D 1010 1241 most lat vg

COMMENTS: While it is possible that copyists may have omitted the word "sound" because it is not needed to make sense, it is more likely that it was added to change the unfamiliar "loud trumpet" to the more familiar "loud sound."

Matthew 24:36:

TEXT: "no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b B D Theta ƒ13 28 1195 1230* most lat syr(pal) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, but the Father only."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a K L W Delta Pi ƒ1 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect two lat vg syr(s,p,h) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: It is possible that the words "nor the Son" were added here by copyists to make the text read like the parallel passage in Mark 13:32. On the other hand, it is possible that they were omitted to avoid the theological problem of the Son of God not knowing something. The same thing happened with a few manuscripts in Mark 13:32 (including manuscripts X and 983). They are included here since they are found in early manuscripts of several kinds of ancient text.

Matthew 24:42:

TEXT: "plyou do not know on what day plyour Lord is coming"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D W Delta Theta 33
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "plyou do not know at what hour plyour Lord is coming"
EVIDENCE: K L Gamma 0281 565 700 1241 Byz most lat syr(s,p) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading "hour" seems to be taken from verse 44. Early manuscripts of multiple text types have "day."

Matthew 25:1:

TEXT: "and went out to meet the bridegroom."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C K L W X2 Delta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr(h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "and went out to meet the bridegroom and the bride."
EVIDENCE: D X* Theta ƒ1 1195*vid lat vg syr(s,p,h+)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the words "and the bride" were omitted by copyists to focus the parable on the bridegroom, who represents Christ, it is more likely that the words were added by other copyists to reflect the custom of the bridegroom bringing the bride back to his house for the wedding.

Matthew 25:13:

TEXT: "plyou do not know the day nor the hour"
EVIDENCE: p35 Aleph(א) A B C* D L W X Y* Delta Theta Pi* Sigma 047 ƒ1 33 565 892 lat syr(s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "plyou do not know the day nor the hour in which the Son of man is coming"
EVIDENCE: C3 Gamma Pi3 Psi ƒ13 28 700 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional clause is apparently added from Matthew 24:44. The early manuscript support for it not being original is decisive.

Matthew 25:31:

TEXT: "and all the angels with him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Theta ƒ1 33 565 most lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and all the holy angels with him"
EVIDENCE: A K W Gamma Delta ƒ13 700 892 1241 Byz one lat syr(p,h) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "holy" is a natural addition to angels. Althouth it is possible that it was omitted due to a mistake of the eye, it is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Matthew 26:3:

TEXT: " the chief priests and the elders of the people gathered"
EVIDENCE: p45 Aleph(א) A B D L Theta 0293 ƒ1 ƒ13 33vid 565 700 892 most lat syr(s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: " the chief priests and the scribes and the elders of the people gathered"
EVIDENCE: K Gamma Delta 1241 Byz old lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: " the chief priests and the Pharisees and the elders of the people gathered"
EVIDENCE: W

COMMENTS: The phrase "and the scribes" is a natural addition to "chief priests" since it occurs elsewhere. The phrase is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Matthew 26:20:

TEXT: "he was sitting [at the table] with the twelve."
EVIDENCE: p37vid p45vid B D K ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 1010 Byz Lect one lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSV ESV NIV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "he was sitting [at the table] with the twelve disciples."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A L W Delta Theta Pi 074 33 892 1241 most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESVn NASV NEB REB TEV

COMMENTS: Since the phrase "twelve disciples" is found several times in scripture, it was natural for copyists to add the word "disciples" here. The manuscript evidence seems to favor its omission here.

Matthew 26:27:

TEXT: "And he took a cup and gave thanks"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L W Delta Theta 074 ƒ1 28 33 700 892 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV2011 NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And he took the cup and gave thanks"
EVIDENCE: p37vid p45 A C D K Pi ƒ13 565 1010 1241 Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NIV84

COMMENTS: Copyists were more inclined to add than to delete the word for "the."

Matthew 26:28:

TEXT: "this is my blood of the covenant"
EVIDENCE: p37 p45vid Aleph(א) B L Theta 33 some syr(pal) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESB NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "this is my blood of the new covenant"
EVIDENCE: A C D K W Delta Pi 074vid ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg most syr most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "new" was apparently added by copyists from the parallel passage in Luke 22:20.

Matthew 26:39:

TEXT: "And going a little farther"
EVIDENCE: p37 B 892 lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV? RSV? NRSV? ESV? NASV? NIV? NEB? REB? TEV? CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And coming a little farther"
EVIDENCE: p53 Aleph(א) A C D K L W Gamma Delta Theta 067 ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 1241 Byz syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: There is very little difference in the meaning of the two words and they vary by only one letter. The difference is perhaps between proceeding and approching. The one in the notes is very common in Matthew. The thinking is that scribes were more likely to change the less common word to the more common than visa versa. But either way could be a mistake of the eye. All the English translations use some form of the word "go."

Matthew 26:42:

TEXT: "if this cannot pass"
EVIDENCE: p37 Aleph(א) B L ƒ1 33
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESB [NASV (NASV2020 adds cup in italics)] CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "if this cup cannot pass from me"
EVIDENCE: K Gamma Delta* 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NEB REB CSBn

NOTES: "if this cup cannot pass"
EVIDENCE: D Theta ƒ13 700 892 most lat syr(s,p)
TRANSLATIONS: NIV? TEV? CSBn

NOTES: "if this cannot pass from me"
EVIDENCE: A C W Deltac 067 565 syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

COMMENTS: Since the NIV and TEV do not use italics to show added words, they may be translating the reading in the notes. The same can be said of the NEB and REB, but they include the word "me." The extra words are apparently taken from verse 39.

Matthew 26:60:

TEXT: "but they did not find [any], although many false witnesses came forward"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C* L N* Theta most lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "but they did not find [any]; and although many false witnesses came forward, they did not find [any]"
EVIDENCE: A C3 K (Nc) W Gamma DElta (ƒ1) ƒ13 33 565 700 892 Byz old lat syr(s,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "but they did not find the next; and although many false witnesses came forward, they did not find the next"
EVIDENCE: D

COMMENTS: The repetition of "they did not find" is apparently taken from the first part of the verse.

Matthew 26:60:

TEXT: "finally two came forward"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L Theta ƒ1 syr(p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "finally two false witnesses came forward"
EVIDENCE: A C D N W 090 ƒ13 1241 Maj lat vg syr(s,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: It is likely that "false witnesses" was added by copyists from the first part of the verse.

Matthew 27:2:

TEXT: "and delivered [him] to Pilate the governor"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L 0281 33 syr(s,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "and delivered [him] to Pontius Pilate the governor"
EVIDENCE: A C K W Gamma Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 1241 Byz lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: If the double name was original, there doesn't seem to be a good reason to omit "Pontius." The double name is found elsewhere in the New Testament, and scribes tended to add to names rather than shorten them.

Matthew 27:4:

TEXT: "I have sinned by betraying innocent blood."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B* C K W X Delta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr(p,h) few cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "I have sinned by betraying righteous blood."
EVIDENCE: B2margin L Theta lat vg syr(s,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn

COMMENTS: The word "righteous" was used in the law courts as a synonym for "innocent" (see Luke 23:47 RSV). While it can be argued that "innocent" was introduced from the Greek Old Testament, where "innocent blood" is found 15 times to only 4 times for "righteous blood," the manuscript evidence would indicate that "righteous" was borrowed from some place such as Matthew 23:35.

Matthew 27:9:

TEXT: "spoken through the prophet Jeremiah"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B C L X W Gamma Delta Theta Pi Byz most lat vg syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "spoken through the prophet Zechariah"
EVIDENCE: 22
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

NOTES: "spoken through the prophet Isaiah"
EVIDENCE: 21 one lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

OTHER: "spoken through the prophet"
EVIDENCE: 33 two lat syr(s,p)

COMMENTS: Although the text quoted is a combination of passages from Jeremiah and Zechariah, the majority of the quotation is from Zechariah 11:13, leading one scribe to change the name of the major prophet Jeremiah to the minor prophet name Zechariah, and several to omit any name. The change to Isaiah is strange.

Matthew 27:9-10:

TEXT: "And they took the thirty silver [coins] . . . and they gave them for the potter's field"
EVIDENCE: A B* C K L X Delta Theta Pi 064 ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz most Lect lat vg few syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And I took the thirty silver [coins] . . . and I gave them for the potter's field"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B2vid W 2174 four Lect most syr
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn NASVn NEBn REBn CSBn

COMMENTS: "I took" and "they took" are spelled alike in Greek, so the difference is between "I gave" and "they gave" which are also spelled similar ("they gave" has one letter more than "I gave"--the Greek letter for "n"). It is likely that the reading "I gave" was introduced because of the word "me" at the end of the verse.

Matthew 27:16-17:

TEXT: "a notorious prisoner, called Jesus Barabbas. . . . release to plyou, Jesus Barabbas or Jesus who is called Christ?"
EVIDENCE: Theta ƒ1 700* syr(s,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSV NIV2011 NEB REB TEV CSBn
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "a notorious prisoner, called Barabbas. . . . release to plyou, Barabbas or Jesus who is called Christ?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B D K L W Delta Pi 064 ƒ13 33 565 700c 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) few syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV NIV84 NIV2011n NEBn REBn CSB

COMMENTS: The name "Jesus" before "Barabbas" in verses 16 and 17 is in brackets in the UBS text. Although the name "Jesus Barabbas" is found in only a few manuscripts, it is more likely to be original, because copyists would have been likely to have omitted the name "Jesus" from before "Barabbas" out of reverence, and there is no reason for it to have been added.

Matthew 27:24:

TEXT: "I am innocent of this [man's] blood"
EVIDENCE: B D Theta some lat syr(s) most cop(south) some cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "I am innocent of this righteous [man's] blood" or "I am innocent of this righteous blood"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A K L W Delta Pi 064 ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h,pal) some cop(south) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "righteous" is missing from early manuscripts of several types of ancient text. It is found before "this" in most manuscripts that have it, but after "this" in some others. It appears to have been added by copyists to make clear Jesus' innocence.

Matthew 27:28:

TEXT: "And they stripped him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b A L W Delta Theta Pi 064 (add "of his clothes") ƒ1 ƒ13 33 (add "of his clothes") 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(p,h) some syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "And they clothed him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a B syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

OTHER: "And they clothed him in a purple cloak and"
EVIDENCE: D some lat some syr(pal)

COMMENTS: The difference between the words for "stripped" and "clothed" in Greek is one letter. The word "clothed" seems to have been a change made by copyists who assumed that he was still naked following the whipping he received (see John 19:1). The words "in a purple cloak" have been added from John 19:2.

Matthew 27:34:

TEXT: "they gave him wine to drink"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D K L Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 most lat syr(s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "they gave him vinegar to drink"
EVIDENCE: A N W Gamma Delta 0281 565 700 892 1241 Byz some lat syr(p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the word "wine" was borrowed from the parallel in Mark 15:23, it is more likely that the reading "vinegar" (that is, wine vinegar or sour wine) was taken from the quotation from the Greek Old Testament of Ps. 69:22 (Ps. 68:22 LXX). Scribes often tried to change the Old Testament quotations to be exact, and the reading "wine" is found is early manuscripts of multiple text types.

Matthew 27:35:

TEXT: "they divided his clothes [among them by] throwing [gambling] lots."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) A B D L W Gamma Pi 33 565 700 892c Maj two lat early vg syr(p,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "they divided his clothes [among them by] throwing [gambling] lots, so that the word [spoken] by the prophet might be fulfilled, 'They divided my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they threw [gambling] lots.'"
EVIDENCE: Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 most lat later vg syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn NIV84n CSBn

OTHER: "they divided his clothes [among them by] throwing [gambling] lots on them."
EVIDENCE: 892* syr(s) cop

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that the additional material may have accidently been omitted due to a mistake of the eye (skipping from "lots" to "lots"), the quote from Psalm 22:18 seems to have been added by later copyists from the parallel in John 19:24 with Matthew's type of wording used to introduce the quote.

Matthew 27:41:

TEXT: "The chief priests, with the scribes and elders, were also mocking"
EVIDENCE: (Aleph(א)) A B L Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 700 892 most lat most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "The chief priests, with the scribes and elders and Pharisees, were also mocking"
EVIDENCE: K Delta 565 1241 Byz one lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

OTHER: "The chief priests, with the scribes and Pharisees, were also mocking"
EVIDENCE: D W most old lat syr(s)

OTHER: "The chief priests, with the scribes, were also mocking"
EVIDENCE: Gamma

COMMENTS: The expression "scribes and Pharisees" is a common one in the gospels and thus may have entered the text through a mental error of scribes.

Matthew 27:42:

TEXT: "He is the King of Israel; let him come down"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L 33 892 cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "If he is the King of Israel, let him come down"
EVIDENCE: A K W Gamma Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 1241 Byz lat syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "if" is missing from early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western text types.

Matthew 27:46:

TEXT: "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani"
EVIDENCE: A D K (L) W Gamma Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 1241 Byz most lat
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV84n NIV2011 NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B 33 some vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: NIV84 NIV2011n

COMMENTS: Some Alexandrian manuscripts have apparently changed the Hebrew "Eli" (My God) to read like the Aramaic "Eloi" (My God) in Mark 15:34.

Matthew 27:46:

TEXT: "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L 33 700 most lat
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV ESV NASV2020 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani"
EVIDENCE: D Theta ƒ1 some old lat later vg
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NASV95 CSBn

NOTES: "Eli, Eli, lima sabachthani"
EVIDENCE: A K W Gamma Delta ƒ13 565 892 1241 Byz some old lat
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

OTHER: "Eli, Eli, leima sabachthani"
EVIDENCE: E F G H M S V

COMMENTS: Scribes had difficulty knowing how to spell the words in this Hebrew phrase. The word "sabachthani" is also spelled in various ways in the manuscripts.

Matthew 27:49:

TEXT: "'Let us see whether Elijah is coming to save him.'"
EVIDENCE: A D K W Delta Theta Pi 090 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(s,p,h) some syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "'Let us see whether Elijah is coming to save him.' And another took a spear and pierced his side, and out came water and blood."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C L 1010 some syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn NASVn

COMMENTS: The additional words seem to have been introduced here by some copyists from the similar account in John 19:34, although strangely enough they appear here before Jesus' death.

Matthew 27:58:

TEXT: "Then Pilate commanded [for it] to be given [to him]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L ƒ1 33 892 cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Then Pilate commanded [for] the body to be given [to him]"
EVIDENCE: A C D K W Gamma Delta Theta ƒ13 565 700 1241 Byz lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV TEV CSBn

OTHER: "Then Pilate commanded [for] the body of Jesus to be given [to him]"
EVIDENCE: 1424

COMMENTS: The words "the body" seems to be a natural addition for clarification from the previous part of the verse. They are missing from the oldest manuscripts; however, it is possible that they were deleted by Alexandrian scribes as not needed.

Matthew 28:6:

TEXT: "Come, see the place where he was lying."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B Theta 33 892text one lat syr(s) some syr(pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Come, see the place where the Lord was lying."
EVIDENCE: A C D K L W Delta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892margin 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) some syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn

OTHER: "Come, see the place where Jesus was lying."
EVIDENCE: Phi

COMMENTS: It was natural for copyists to add a definite subject where one was missing. There seems to be no reason why "the Lord" should be omitted if it were originally present.

Matthew 28:9:

TEXT: "And behold, Jesus met them"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D W Theta ƒ13 33 700 892 most lat syr(p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Now as they were going to report to his disciples, and behold, Jesus met them"
EVIDENCE: A C K L Gamma Delta 0148 ƒ1 28 565 1010 1241 Byz two lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The extra clause is missing from early manuscripts of three text types.

Matthew 28:17:

TEXT: "when they saw him they worshiped [him]"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L 33 most lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NASV REB CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "when they saw him they worshiped him"
EVIDENCE: A K W Delta Theta Gamma Pi 074 0148 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "him" is missing from early manuscripts of multiple text types. Different manuscripts that include it have it in three different case forms (genitive, dative, and accusative) thus indicating that it was an addition by scribes. A number of translations that do not mark added words may be following a Greek text that omits the word.


Bruce Terry's Home Page
Bruce Terry's Home Page   Index Page
Page maintained by    Copyright © 1985, 1998, 2021 Bruce Terry
Last Modified April 25, 2021
http://bible.ovu.edu/terry/tc/lay03mat.htm