A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

Matt. 10:25-18:15


Matthew 10:25:

TEXT: "If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul"
EVIDENCE: C D L W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 Maj most lat syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV1984n NIV2011 REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "If they have called the master of the house Beezebul"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn NIV1984n

NOTES: "If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub"
EVIDENCE: two lat vg syr(s,p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV* NASVn NIV1984* NEB

COMMENTS: "Beelzebul" is the Greek spelling of the Hebrew word "Baal-Zebub," which means "lord of flies." It has passed through Latin into English as Beelzebub. It is used in the New Testament to refer to the devil.

Matthew 11:9:

TEXT: "But what did plyou go out to see? A prophet?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c B*vid C D K L P X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSV ESV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "But why did plyou go out? To see a prophet?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* Bc W 892 cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn NASV NEB REB

COMMENTS: The textual problem is one of word order. The same Greek word can be translated either "what" or "why." Thus the reading of the UBS text can be translated either as found in the text or as found in the notes, depending on how one punctuates the sentence. But the reading in the notes must be translated as found in the notes. It may be that the reading in the text was changed to remove the ambiguity found in it. On the other hand, it may be that the reading in the notes was original and it was changed (1) to give the question the same kind of ambiguity as the questions in verses 7 and 8, which also may be translated two different ways, or (2) to make the verse read the same as Luke 7:26.

Matthew 11:15:

TEXT: "The one who has ears, let him hear."
EVIDENCE: B D 700 two lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSV ESVn NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "The one who has ears to hear, let him hear"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV CSBn

COMMENTS: The more complete expression "ears to hear" is found in other places (such as Mark 4:9,23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35). It was probably added here from there. There is no good reason for it to be deleted from this place. See also Matthew 13:9 and 43.

Matthew 11:19:

TEXT: "wisdom is justified by her works"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B* W syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "wisdom is justified by her children"
EVIDENCE: B2 C D K L X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,s) most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

OTHER: "wisdom is justified by all her children"
EVIDENCE: one lat

OTHER: "wisdom is justified by all her works"
EVIDENCE: ƒ13

COMMENTS: While it is possible that "works" was originally a scribal comment on the original reading "children," it is more likely that "works" was original and was changed to be the same as in the parallel passage in Luke 7:35. The word "all" was probably added from that passage.

Matthew 11:23:

TEXT: "You shall be brought down to Hades."
EVIDENCE: B D W lat vg syr(c,s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV? NRSV? ESV? NASV NIV REB? TEV? CSB?
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "You shall be driven down to Hades."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C K L X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSV? NRSV? ESV? NASVn NEB REB? TEV? CSB?

COMMENTS: Both variations (katabainô--which is here translated "be brought down," but often "go down"--and katabibazô--here translated "be driven down," but often "be brought down") can be translated "be brought down." The rarer word "be driven down" might have been changed to the more common word found in Isaiah 14:15, but "be brought down" is found in early manuscripts of several types of ancient text. See also Luke 10:15.

Matthew 12:4:

TEXT: "how he entered into the house of God and they ate the bread of presentation"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B 481
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "how he entered into the house of God and he ate the bread of presentation"
EVIDENCE: p70 C D K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892c 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NEB REB CSBn

OTHER: "how he entered into the house of God and he took the bread of presentation"
EVIDENCE: 892*

COMMENTS: It is possible that the clause "it was not permissible for him nor for those with him to eat" occasioned a few copyists to change "he ate" to "they ate." However, "they ate" may have been changed to "he ate" to make this agree with the parallel passages in Mark 2:26 and Luke 6:4 and with the "he entered" of the earlier clause.

Matthew 12:15:

TEXT: "large crowds followed him" or "many crowds followed him" (footnote reading)
EVIDENCE: C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect few lat syr(p,h) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "many followed him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B many lat vg syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSBn

NOTES: "crowds followed him"
EVIDENCE: N some cop(south)
COMMENTS: The word "crowds" is in brackets in the UBS text. The word order is reversed in manuscript X. The reading "many" is found in both Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text. The word "crowds" may have been added because the familiar phrase "large crowds" or "many crowds" is often found in Matthew (see 4:25; 8:1; 13:2; 15:30; 19:2). The same word is translated both "many" and "large." On the other hand, it is possible that the eye of copyists overlooked the word, since both "many" and "crowds" have the same ending in Greek.

Matthew 12:24:

TEXT: "This man does not cast out the demons, except by Beelzebul"
EVIDENCE: p21 C D L W Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 Maj most lat syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIVn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "This man does not cast out the demons, except by Beezebul"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn NIVn

NOTES: "This man does not cast out the demons, except by Beelzebub"
EVIDENCE: two lat vg syr(s,c,p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV* NASVn NIV* NEB

COMMENTS: "Beelzebul" is the Greek spelling of the Hebrew word "Baal-Zebub," which means "lord of flies." It has passed through Latin into English as Beelzebub. It is used in the New Testament to refer to the devil.

Matthew 12:31:

TEXT: "but the blasphemy [against] the Spirit will not be forgiven"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B ƒ1 829 few lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "but the blasphemy [against] the Spirit will not be forgiven men"
EVIDENCE: C D K L N W Gamma Delta Theta 0271 ƒ13 33 565 700 most lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "men" seems to be added from the previous clause. It is rather to be implied.

Matthew 12:47:

TEXT: include verse 47: "Behold, your mother and your brothers are standing outside, seeking to speak to you."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a C D K W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: omit verse 47
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B L Gamma 1009 one Lect two lat syr(c,s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSVn ESV NIVn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The verse is in brackets in the UBS text because it is missing from some of the older manuscripts. However, since both verse 46 and verse 47 end with the same word in Greek, it is probable that the eye of copyists jumped from one to the other and skipped verse 47, especially since it does not contain the variations that would be expected if it had been added later by copyists.

Matthew 13:9:

TEXT: "The one who has ears, let him hear."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B L four lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "The one who has ears to hear, let him hear"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c C D K W X Z Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The more complete expression "ears to hear" is found in other places (such as Mark 4:9,23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35). It was probably added here from there. There is no good reason for it to be deleted from this place. See also Matthew 11:15 and 13:43.

Matthew 13:35:

TEXT: "This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet, saying,"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)b B C D K L W X Delta Pi 0242 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet Isaiah, saying,"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEB REBn

COMMENTS: It is possible that Isaiah was originally named and most copyists deleted his name because the heading to Psalm 78 attributes that psalm to Asaph. On the other hand, copyists have more than once put Isaiah's name in a place where no prophet was named (such as in Matthew 1:22; 2:5; 21:4; and Acts 7:48). Because of this, it is best to follow the majority of manuscripts from several types of text in leaving out the name Isaiah.

Matthew 13:35:

TEXT: "I will utter things that have been hidden from the foundation of the world"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,c C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "I will utter things that have been hidden from the foundation"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)b B ƒ1 two lat syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The word translated "of the world" is in brackets in the UBS text, because it is missing from manuscripts that belong to several different types of ancient text. If it is not original, it may have been added from Matthew 25:4. However, it may have omitted to make the verse read more like the Greek Old Testament which simply says "from the beginning." It is included here because it is found in the great majority of manuscripts.

Matthew 13:43:

TEXT: "The one who has ears, let him hear."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B Theta 0242 700 four lat earlier vg
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "The one who has ears to hear, let him hear"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c C D K L P W X Delta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat later vg syr(c,s,p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn (note at v. 9) CSBn

COMMENTS: The more complete expression "ears to hear" is found in other places (such as Mark 4:9,23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35). It was probably added here from there. There is no good reason for it to be deleted from this place. See also Matthew 11:15 and 13:9.

Matthew 13:51:

TEXT: "'Have plyou comprehended all these things?'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D most lat syr(s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "'Have plyou comprehended all these things?' Jesus said* to them."
EVIDENCE: C K L N W Gamma Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz few lat syr(c,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV [NEB REB "he asked"] CSBn

COMMENTS: The expansion is natural to make clear who is speaking. The shorter reading is found in two older texttypes.

Matthew 13:55:

TEXT: "his brothers James and Joseph and Simon and Judah" [or, Jude; literally Judas]
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a B C Theta ƒ1 33 700c 892 most lat vg syr(c,s,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "his brothers James and Joses and Simon and Judah" [or, Jude; literally Judas]
EVIDENCE: K L W Delta Pi 0119 ƒ13 565 1241 Byz some Lect most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "his brothers James and John and Simon and Judah" [or, Jude; literally Judas]
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*vid D X 28 most Lect
COMMENTS: Later manuscripts have apparently changed the Hebrew form of the name Joseph to match the Greek form Joses to agree with Mark and Luke. The name John is apparently a mistake of the mind since the sons of Zebedee, James and John, are mentioned together so often.

Matthew 14:3:

TEXT: "because of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "because of Herodias, his brother's wife"
EVIDENCE: D some lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the name "Philip" was added to make this verse read like Mark 6:17, it is much more likely that some Western copyists deleted the name "Philip," either to make the text like that of Luke 3:19 or to harmonize Matthew with Josephus' report that Herodias' first husband was named Herod also (see Antiquities, XVIII.v.4).

Matthew 14:12:

TEXT: "his disciples came and took the corpse and buried him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B 0106 ("body") two lat syr(c,s) few cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NASVn ("body")
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "his disciples came and took the corpse and buried it"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)1 C D L Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 700 892 1010 1241 1424 two lat syr(p) most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: CSB

NOTES: "his disciples came and took the body and buried it"
EVIDENCE: W X Gamma Delta Pi Phi 28 Byz most lat vg syr(h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The difference between "it" (Greek auto) and "him" (Greek auton) is only one letter. In the UBS text that letter is in brackets. While most manuscripts read "it," it is more likely that "him" was changed to "it" than vice versa, because "it" agrees in gender with the neuter words "corpse" and "body." In choosing between those two words, "corpse" is more likely to be original. It is found in earlier manuscripts, and the rarer word "corpse" was more likely to be changed to the more familiar word "body" than vice versa.

Matthew 14:22:

TEXT: "And immediately he made the disciples get into the boat"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C D I P Delta Theta some lat some vg syr(c,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And immediately Jesus made the disciples get into the boat"
EVIDENCE: Cc E F G K L M S U V X Gamma Pi Byz some vg
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV* TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The name Jesus was apparently added by later copyists to make it clear who the subject is.

Matthew 14:24:

TEXT: "the boat was already many stadia distant from the land"
EVIDENCE: B Theta ƒ13 700 syr(c,p,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "the boat was already in the middle of the sea"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C D K L P W X Delta Pi 084 ƒ1 28 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEBn TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: There are four different variations of the text reading, involving word order changes, the omission of "from the land," and the use of "considerable" instead of "many." There are also three different variations of the reading in the notes. While it is possible that the reading in the text was suggested by John 6:19 ("when they had rowed about twenty-five or thirty stadia"), it is more likely that the text is original and the reading in the notes is a result of copyists changing Matthew to read like Mark 6:47.

Matthew 14:29:

TEXT: "Peter walked on the water and went toward Jesus"
EVIDENCE: B C*vid 700 1010 syr(c,s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Peter walked on the water to go toward Jesus"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c C2 D K L P W X Delta Theta Pi 073vid ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 892 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV

OTHER: "Peter walked on the water to go. Therefore he went toward Jesus"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*

OTHER: "Peter walked on the water toward Jesus"
EVIDENCE: none

TRANSLATIONS: NIV NEB REB TEV
COMMENTS: Since the word translated "toward" can also be translated "to," the reading "went to Jesus" may have seem too strong to many copyists, and thus was changed to "to go." The reading of Aleph(א)* seems to be a mixture of the two. NIV and NEB have omitted the verb "go" not on the basis of text, but to make for smoother reading English.

Matthew 14:30:

TEXT: "when he saw the strong wind, he was afraid"
EVIDENCE: B2 C D K L P X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSV ESVn NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "when he saw the wind, he was afraid"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B* 073 33 cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASV NIV CSBn

OTHER: "when he saw the very strong wind, he was afraid"
EVIDENCE: W

COMMENTS: Although it can be argued that the word "strong" was added to heighten the effect just as manuscript W added the word "very," it is more likely that "strong" was accidently omitted from some manuscripts in the Egyptian type of text due to a mistake of the eye. In Greek the word for "wind" and the word for "strong" have the same ending, and it is probable that the eye of an early copyist in Egypt skipped over the word "strong."

Matthew 15:4:

TEXT: "For God said, 'Honor [your] father and [your] mother'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a B D Theta 084 ƒ1 ƒ13 700 892 most lat vg syr(c,s,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV NRSV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "For God commanded, saying, 'Honor [your] father and [your] mother'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b C K L W X Delta Pi 33 565 1010 1241 Byz Lect one lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV [RSV ESV(omit "saying")] CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "commanded" was probably added due to the word "commandment" in verse 3. Although Mark 7:10 has simply "said," it reads "Moses said." Thus it is not likely that "commanded, saying" was changed to "said" to make Matthew read like Mark.

Matthew 15:6:

TEXT: "he shall not honor his father"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D three lat syr(c) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "he shall not honor his father or his mother"
EVIDENCE: C K L W X Delta Theta Pi 084 ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NRSVn NASV95 NASV* NIVn NEB REB TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: It can be argued that the phrase "or his mother" was added by copyists because of the reference to the mother in verses 4 and 5. On the other hand, it can be argued that it was accidently omitted when the eye of copyists jumped from the first "his" to the second "his" ("his" follows the noun in Greek). It is omitted from the UBS text because it is missing from early manuscripts of both Egyptian and Western types of ancient text. Also the reference to mother is found with four major variations of text, two of which omit the word "his" either after "father" or "mother."

Matthew 15:6:

TEXT: "plyou have made void the word of God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a B D Theta 700 892 some lat syr(c,s,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "plyou have made void the law of God"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b C 084 ƒ13 1010
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NEB REB

NOTES: "plyou have made void the commandment of God"
EVIDENCE: K L W X Delta Pi ƒ1 33 565 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "commandment" seems to have been introduced from verse 3. While it can be argued that "word" was introduced by copyists from the parallel passage in Mark 7:13, that reading is found in several types of ancient text. It has been suggested that the reading "law" was added because Jesus referred to one specific law.

Matthew 15:8:

* TEXT: "This people honors me with [their] lips"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L Theta 073 ƒ13 33 700 892 most lat syr(s,c,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV [NEB REB ("pay lip-service")] TEV ("with their words") CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "This people draws near to me with [their] mouth"
EVIDENCE: C K N W Gamma Delta 0106 565 1241 Byz few lat syr(h(
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading in the notes has apparently been changed to read like the Greek Old Testament translation of Isaiah 29:13>

Matthew 15:14:

TEXT: "they are blind leaders of the blind"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a C L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) few cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSV ESVn NASV NIVn NEBn REBn TEV CSBn
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "they are blind leaders"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,b B D 0237 one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn ESV NASVn NIV NEB REB CSB

OTHER: "they are leaders of the blind"
EVIDENCE: K syr(c,s)

COMMENTS: The word translated "of the blind" is in brackets in the UBS text, because it is missing from early manuscripts of two kinds of ancient text. However, it is possible that copyists' eyes jumped from "blind" in this sentence to the first word of the next sentence, which is also "blind" in the Greek text.

Matthew 15:16:

TEXT: "And he said, 'Are plyou also still without comprehension?'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D Z 0281 33 892 most lat syr(x,c,p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And Jesus said, 'Are plyou also still without comprehension?'"
EVIDENCE: C K L W Gamma Delta Theta 0106 ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 1241 Byz few lat syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The name Jesus was apparently added by later copyists to make it clear who the subject is.

Matthew 15:17:

TEXT: "Do plyou not understand that"
EVIDENCE: B D Z Theta ƒ13 33 565 most lat syr(s,c,p) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Do plyou not yet understand that"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C K L W Gamma Delta 0106 0281 ƒ1 700 892 1241 Byz few lat syr(h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The form "not yet" was an apparent change to fit the word "still" of the previous verse.

Matthew 15:22:

TEXT: "a Canaanite woman came out from that region and started crying out, saying"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 B D Theta ƒ1 700 892
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "a Canaanite woman came out from that region and cried out to him, saying"
EVIDENCE: K L W Gamma Delta 0106 565 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV TEV CSBn

NOTES: "a Canaanite woman came out from that region and cried, saying"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* (C) Z 0281 ƒ13 1241
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV

COMMENTS: There are two Greek words for crying out in this verse; the harsher one, maybe a scream, is found in manuscript C and the majority of Byaantine manuscripts that lie behind the King James Version. The reading behind the text is supported by older manuscripts of multiple text types. The change in words for cry out may have been to make the text more dramatic.

Matthew 15:39:

TEXT: "he got into the boat and went to the region of Magadan"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D most lat vg syr(c,pal,s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "he got into the boat and went to the region of Magdala"
EVIDENCE: C K L N W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect one lat syr(h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Since the exact location of Magadan is uncertain, copists apparently changed the word to the known location of Magdala. The manuscripts have various spelling of both words. The Syriac Peshitta [syr(p)] is ambiguous with Magdu.

Matthew 16:2-3:

TEXT: "he answered by saying to them, "When it is evening, plyou say, '[It will be] fair weather; for the sky is red.' And in the morning, '[It will be] stormy today, for the sky is red and threatening.' plYou know [how] to discern the appearance of the sky, but plyou cannot [discern] the signs of the times. An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign"
EVIDENCE: C D K L N W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) few cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "he answered by saying to them, "An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B X ƒ13 157 1216 syr(c,s) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEB REB TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words that are missing from some manuscripts are in brackets in the UBS text. It has been argued that these words were added from the parallel in Luke 12:54-56. However, the lack of exact correspondence with the passage in Luke argues against this, especially since the text here as included contains only two minor variations. Much more variation could be expected if the text had been paraphrased from Luke. It is probable that the words were omitted by copyists who live in climates, such as Egypt, where a red sky in the morning does not mean that it will rain.

Matthew 16:3:

TEXT: "plYou know [how] to discern the appearance of the sky"
EVIDENCE: C D L Delta 33 some lat vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASB NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Hypocrites, plyou know [how] to discern the appearance of the sky"
EVIDENCE: E F G H M S U Pi Byz some lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "hypocrites" is missing from earliest manuscripts of different texttypes. There would be no good reason to delete the word, but copyists would be tempted to add it because of the several times that Jesus addresses religious leaders with the term.

Matthew 16:4:

TEXT: "except the sign of Jonah"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L 700 some lat cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "except the sign of the prophet Jonah"
EVIDENCE: C K N W Gamma Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz some lat later vg syr cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "the prophet" were apparently added by copists to clarify who Jonah was. They are missing from earlier manuscripts of different text types.

Matthew 16:13:

TEXT: "Who do men say that the Son of man is?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B 700 one lat vg syr(h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Who do men say that I the Son of man am?"
EVIDENCE: C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat syr(c,s,p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn NEBn CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "I" was apparently added from the parallel passages in Mark 8:27 and Luke 9:18. Here in Matthew the manuscripts that include it have it in different places.

Matthew 16:20:

TEXT: "Then he warned the disciples to tell no one that he was the Christ."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B L Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 most old lat syr(c,p) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Then he warned the disciples to tell no one that he was Jesus the Christ."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)2 C (D) K W Gamma 892 1241 Byz few old lat vg syr(h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: Scribes often expanded the names and titles of Jesus.

Matthew 16:21:

TEXT: "Jesus began showing his disciples"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)b B3 C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(c,p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Jesus Christ began showing his disciples"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B* most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NASV

OTHER: "he began showing his disciples"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a 892

COMMENTS: The title "Christ" seems to have been added by some Egyptian copyists from the previous verse. Apparently the first corrector of manuscript Aleph(א) accidently struck out the name "Jesus" also while trying to remove the extra word.

Matthew 17:4:

TEXT: "I will make three shelters here"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C* 700* few lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Let us make three shelters here"
EVIDENCE: C3 D K L W Gamma Delta Theta 0281 ƒ13 33 565 700c 892 1241 Byz most lat syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

NOTES: "We will make three shelters here"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn

COMMENTS: A majority of manuscripts have apparently changed Matthew's account to read the more inclusive plural found in Mark 9:5 and Luke 9:33.

Matthew 17:9:

TEXT: "until the Son of man is raised from the dead"
EVIDENCE: B D
TRANSLATIONS: RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "until the Son of man has raisen from the dead"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C K L (W) Z Gamma Delta Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1241 Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NASV CSBn

COMMENTS: Apparently the majority of copyists changed the passive form of the word egeirō to the active form of its synonym anistēmi found in the parallel passage in Mark 9:9. Although few manuscripts read as the text, the text types of the two ancient manuscripts B and D diverged in the second century, so the reading in the text is the much older reading.

Matthew 17:11:

TEXT: "And he answered by saying"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D L W Z ƒ1 33 892 most lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And Jesus answered by saying"
EVIDENCE: C K Gamma Delta Theta ƒ13 565 700 1241 Byz few lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIV TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: Jesus' name is apparently added by copyists to make clear who is speaking.

Matthew 17:11:

TEXT: "Indeed Elijah is coming"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D W Theta ƒ1 33 700 most lat syr(c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Indeed Elijah is coming first"
EVIDENCE: C K (L) Z Gamma Delta ƒ13 565 892 1241 Byz few lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The word "first" is apparently added by copyists from the disciples' question in verse 10.

Matthew 17:20:

TEXT: "And he said* to them"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D Theta 0281 ƒ13 33 700 892 most old lat early vg syr(s,c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And Jesus said* to them"
EVIDENCE: C K L W Gamma Delta ƒ1 565 1241 Byz some lat later vg syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: Jesus' name is apparently added by copyists to make clear who is speaking.

Matthew 17:20:

TEXT: "Because of plyour little faith"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B Theta 0281 ƒ1 ƒ13 3 700 892 syr(c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Because of plyour unbelief"
EVIDENCE: C D K L W Gamma Delta 565 1241 Byz lat syr(s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS:

Matthew 17:21:

TEXT: omit verse 21
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B Theta 33 892text two lat syr(c,s,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: include verse 21: "But this kind does not go out except by prayer and fasting."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)b C D K L W X Delta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892margin 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 (in brackets) NASVn NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: There seems to be no good reason for copyists to omit the verse if it was original. Apparently it was borrowed from Mark 9:29, although the parallel is not exact.

Matthew 17:22:

TEXT: "As they were gathering in Galilee"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B ƒ1 892 most lat vg syr(pal) some cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "As they were staying in Galilee"
EVIDENCE: C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect three lat syr(c,s,p,h) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The word translated "gathering" is a rare verb, used only two other places in the New Testament. Therefore it is likely that it was changed to a verb that seemed more appropriate.

Matthew 17:26:

TEXT: "And when he said, 'From others,'"
EVIDENCE: B Theta 0281 ƒ1 700 [892 (Peter in margin)] some vg most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV [NRSV (Peter; Greek he in notes)] ESV [NASV (Peter in italics)] [NIV NEB REB TEV (add Peter; omit And when)] [CSB (omit And when)]
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Peter says to him, 'From others,'"
EVIDENCE: K W X Gamma Delta ƒ13 565 1241 Byz syr(c,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "He says to him, 'From others,'"
EVIDENCE: D syr(s)

COMMENTS: Apparently a number of copyists added the name Peter to make it clear who was speaking, just as several translations have done. Manuscript Aleph(א) adds a second set of "And he said" to the text reading, while manuscripts C and L combine the text and notes readings, giving both. Most Latin manuscripts simply have "And he said." NKJV changes the present tense saith to the past tense said.

Matthew 18:11:

TEXT: omit verse 11
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B L* Theta ƒ1 ƒ13 33 892text two lat syr(s,pal) most cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV95n NASV2020 NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: include verse 11: "For the Son of man came to save the lost."
EVIDENCE: D K W X Delta Pi 078 28 565 700 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(c,p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV95 (in brackets) NASV2020n NIVn NEBn TEVn CSBn

OTHER: include verse 11: "For the Son of man came to seek and to save the lost."
EVIDENCE: Lc(margin) 892margin 1010 some Lect syr(h) a few cop(north)

COMMENTS: Verse 11 is missing from early manuscripts of several types of ancient text. It seems to have been borrowed here from Luke 19:10.

Matthew 18:14:

TEXT: "So it is not the will of plyour Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) Dc K L W X Delta Pi ƒ1 28 565vid Byz Lect lat vg syr(c,p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "So it is not the will of my Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish."
EVIDENCE: B Theta 078 ƒ13 33 700 892 1010 1241 some Lect syr(s,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSVn ESV TEVn

OTHER: "So it is not the will of our Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish."
EVIDENCE: D* 1646 2148

COMMENTS: The reading "our" is probably due to a mistake of the ear, for in later Greek "plyour" and "our" sounded alike. It is more difficult to decide between "plyour" and "my," but "my" may have been borrowed from verse 10 and verse 35.

Matthew 18:15:

TEXT: "if your brother sins against you, go and tell him"
EVIDENCE: D K L W X Delta Theta Pi 078 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASVn NIV84 NIV2011n NEBn REBn TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "if your brother sins, go and tell him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B ƒ1 cop(south) a few cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NRSVn NASV NIV84n NIV2011 NEB REB TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "against you" are in brackets in the UBS text because the words may have been added from "against me" in verse 21. However, it is more likely that they were deleted in a effort to make verse 15 more general.


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