A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

The Gospel According to Matthew

Matt. 1:1-10:3


Matthew 1:6:

TEXT: "And David was the father of Solomon"
EVIDENCE: p1 Aleph(א) B Gamma ƒ1 ƒ13 700 some lat syr(s, c, some p) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "And David the king was the father of Solomon"
EVIDENCE: C L W Byz most lat some syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "the king" seem to be added from the previous clause. The CSB footnote mistakenly puts the work "King" on Solomon's name rather than David's.

Matthew 1:7-8:

TEXT: "Abijah the father of Asaph, 8and Asaph the father of Jehoshaphat"
EVIDENCE: p1vid Aleph(א) B C (D) ƒ1 ƒ13 700 old lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV* ESV* NASV NEB* CSBn
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Abijah the father of Asa, 8and Asa the father of Jehoshaphat"
EVIDENCE: L W Byz some old lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn ESVn NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB*

COMMENTS: Asaph is a variation of Asa. Later manuscripts seems to have conformed the name to the Old Testament form of Asa. The translations marked with a dagger have Asa in the text with a footnote indicating they are following a Greek text that reads Asaph.

Matthew 1:10:

TEXT: "and Manasseh the father of Amos, and Amos the father of Josiah"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C Delta Theta Pi* ƒ1 33 most lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASVn CSBn
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "and Manasseh the father of Amon, and Amon the father of Josiah"
EVIDENCE: K L W Pi2 ƒ13 28 565 (700 892 Ammon) 1241 Byz most Lect vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV* RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASV* NIV NEB REB TEV CSB

COMMENTS: Amon is more nearly like the Hebrew spelling in the Old Testament, but several Greek Old Testament manuscripts spell his name Amos in various places. It is thus likely that copyists changed the unusual form of the name (i.e., Amos) to the more usual form (i.e. Amon).

Matthew 1:16:

TEXT: "and Jacob the father of Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom Jesus was born, who is called Christ"
EVIDENCE: p1 Aleph(א) B C K L P W Delta Pi 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz most Lect some lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "and Jacob the father of Joseph, to whom being engaged the virgin Mary bore Jesus, who is called Christ"
EVIDENCE: Theta ƒ13 one Lect many lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

NOTES: "and Jacob the father of Joseph; Joseph, to whom the virgin Mary was engaged, was the father of Jesus who is called the Christ"
EVIDENCE: syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: The second reading seems to have originated from a desire on the part of copyists to make sure the reader understood that Mary was still a virgin at the time Jesus was born. The third reading seems to be a translation of the second where the translator put the sentence in the same form as the earlier verses, thus inadvertently having Joseph father Jesus.

Matthew 1:18:

TEXT: "Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this."
EVIDENCE: p1 Aleph(א) C K L P Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Now the birth of the Christ was like this."
EVIDENCE: lat vg syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEB

OTHER: "Now the birth of Christ Jesus was like this."
EVIDENCE: B

OTHER: "Now the birth of Jesus was like this."
EVIDENCE: W

COMMENTS: The shorter reading "the Christ" may have been taken from verse 17.

Matthew 1:25:

TEXT: "until she had given birth to a son"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B 071vid ƒ1 ƒ13 33 some old lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "until she had given birth to her firstborn son"
EVIDENCE: C D* (Dc) K (L) W Delta Pi 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some old lat vg most syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "her firstborn" seems to be an addition from Luke 2:7. There would be no reason to omit the words. The evidence in parentheses omits the word "her."

Matthew 2:18:

TEXT: "voice was heard in Ramah, weeping and great mourning"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B 025 ƒ1 lst vg syr(p,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and weeping and great mourning"
EVIDENCE: C D K L W Delta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr(c,s,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional words "lamentation and" appear to be added from the Greek Old Testament of Jer. 31:15 (38:15 in the LXX).

Matthew 3:16:

TEXT: "the heavens were opened to him and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)b C Dsupp K L P W Delta ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz most Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSVn NRSV ESV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "the heavens were opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B syr(c,s) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV ESVn NASV NIV NEB REB CSBn

COMMENTS: It is possible that copyists who did not understand the force of "to him" omitted the word as unneeded. The word translated "to him" is bracketed in the UBS text.

Matthew 4:10:

TEXT: "Go away, Satan!"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C*vid K P W Delta ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892*vid some lat vg syr(p,h.pal) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "Go behind me, Satan!"
EVIDENCE: C3 D L 28 33 892cvid 1010 1241 Byz some lat syr(c) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: CSBn

COMMENTS: The additional words "behind me" seem to be added from Matthew 16:23.

Matthew 4:17:

TEXT: "Jesus began preaching and saying, 'Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.'"
EVIDENCE: all Greek most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Jesus began preaching and saying, 'The kingdom of heaven has come near.'"
EVIDENCE: one lat syr(c,s)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: While it is possible that the words "repent, for" were added to make this verse read like Matthew 3:2, it seems that the words are original since all Greek manuscripts include them.

Matthew 4:23:

TEXT: "And he was going about in all Galilee"
EVIDENCE: B one Lect one lat syr(c) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV(Jesus in italics) NEB REB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "And Jesus was going about in all Galilee"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C D K W Delta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz most Lect most it vg syr(s,p,h,pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NIV TEV CSB

COMMENTS: The word "Jesus" is found in two different places in the manuscripts which contain it. This would seem to indicate that it was originally missing and was added to make the sense clear, especially since this verse started a Lectionary reading section.

Matthew 5:4-5:

TEXT: verse 4 followed by verse 5
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C K W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect syr(s,p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: verse 5 followed by verse 4
EVIDENCE: D 33 most lat vg syr(c)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: It seems that some western copyists put verse 5 which speaks of inheriting the "earth" next to verse 3 which speaks of possessing the kingdom of "heaven."

Matthew 5:11:

TEXT: "say all kinds of evil against plyou falsely for my sake"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C K W Delta Thetta Pi 0196 ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr(c,p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "say all kinds of evil against plyou for my sake"
EVIDENCE: D some lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: NRSVn NEB REB

COMMENTS: The Greek word for "falsely" is found in multiple text families. It may have been omitted to bring it in line with the parallel in Luke 6:22. It is included in brackets in the UBS Greek text.

Matthew 5:22:

TEXT: "everyone who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment"
EVIDENCE: p67vid Aleph(א)* B 2174vid vg
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "everyone who is angry with his brother without cause shall be liable to judgment"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c D K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NIVn NEBn TEVn CSBn

COMMENTS: It seems more likely that copyists would soften the teaching by adding "without cause" than leave it out and thus make it more difficult. However, it is also possible that it was accidently omitted when a copyist's eye jumped from eike "without cause" to the next word enokhos "liable."

Matthew 5:25:

TEXT: "lest your opponent should deliver you up to the judge, and the judge to the officer"
EVIDENCE: p64vid Aleph(א) B ƒ1 ƒ13 892 syr(pal)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NRSV ESV NASV NEB REB CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "lest your opponent should deliver you up to the judge, and the judge should deliver you up to the officer"
EVIDENCE: D K L W Delta Theta Pi 28 33 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most it vg syr(c,s,p,h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV NIV TEV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "should deliver you up" were either omitted as a literary refinement, or added to complete the parallel with the first part of the verse. Since manuscripts from two different types of ancient text (Alexandrian and pre-Caesarean) leave out the words, and similar words are found in the parallel in Luke 12:58, it seems more likely that they were added here to increase the parallelism.

Matthew 5:37:

TEXT: "what you say must be 'Yes,' 'Yes' [or] 'No,' 'No'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) D K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "what you say shall be 'Yes,' 'Yes' [or] 'No,' 'No'"
EVIDENCE: B 700 1546 syr
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: The difference is only one of two letters with no real difference in meaning. Since "must be" is supported by so many different manuscripts from different kinds of ancient texts, it is preferable.

Matthew 5:44:

TEXT: "Start loving plyour enemies and praying for those who persecute plyou"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B v1 one lat syr(c,s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "Start loving plyour enemies, keep blessing those who curse plyou, keep doing good to those who hate plyou and praying for those who persecute plyou"
EVIDENCE: D K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg (omits "doing good" clause) syr(p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NIVn NEBn CSBn

COMMENTS: The two added clauses occur in four major ways, two of which omit one or the other of the clauses, with many variations, but usually in the same form as in the parallel passage in Luke 6:27-28, from which they were probably taken.

Matthew 5:44:

TEXT: "and praying for those who persecute plyou"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B ƒ1 one lat syr(c,s) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "and praying for those who abuse plyou and those who persecute plyou"
EVIDENCE: D K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect some lat syr(p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NEBn CSBn

OTHER: "and praying for those who persecute and abuse plyou"
EVIDENCE: most lat vg

OTHER: "and praying for those who abuse plyou"
EVIDENCE: 1241

COMMENTS: The parallel passage in Luke 6:28 reads "those who abuse plyou," from which the addition probably came.

Matthew 5:47:

TEXT: "Do not even the Gentiles do the same?"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D ƒ1 33 892 1241 old lat vg syr(c,s,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Do not even the tax collectors do the same?"
EVIDENCE: K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ13
28 565 700 Byz Lect one lat syr(p) TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading tax collectors seems to be borrowed from the previous verse.

Matthew 6:1:

TEXT: "Take care not to be practicing plyour righteousness before men"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*,1b B D ƒ1 892 lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASV [RSV NRSV (piety)] ESV NASV NIV [NEB REB TEV {religion}] CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "Take care not to be practicing plyour act of charity before men"
EVIDENCE: K L W Z Delta Theta ƒ13 33 565 700 1241 Byz two lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

OTHER: "Take care not to be practicing plyour giving before men"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)1a syr(c) cop(north)
COMMENTS: The reading "acts of charity" seems to be taken from the next verse. The earlier manuscripts have "righteousness."

Matthew 6:4:

TEXT: "your Father who sees in secret will repay you"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D ƒ1 ƒ13 33 some lat vg syr(c) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "your Father who sees in secret will repay you in the open"
EVIDENCE: K L W Delta Theta Pi 28 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat syr(s,p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn NEBn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "in the open" are absent from the oldest manuscripts of several types of ancient text. It seems that they were added to make a contrast with "in secret."

Matthew 6:6:

TEXT: "your Father who sees in secret will repay you"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D ƒ1 some lat vg syr(c,s,one pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "your Father who sees in secret will repay you in the open"
EVIDENCE: K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat syr(p,h,some pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn NEBn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "in the open" are absent from the oldest manuscripts of several types of ancient text. It seems that they were added to make a contrast with "in secret."

Matthew 6:8:

TEXT: "for plyour Father knows what plyou need before plyou ask him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* D K L W Delta Theta Pi 0170vid ƒ13 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(c,s,p,pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "for God plyour Father knows what plyou need before plyou ask him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a B cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

OTHER: "for our Father knows what plyou need before plyou ask him"
EVIDENCE: ƒ1

OTHER: "for plyour heavenly Father knows what plyou need before plyou ask him"
EVIDENCE: 28 syr(h)

COMMENTS: The phrase "God plyour Father" seems to have been borrowed from Paul's writing. It is found only in manuscripts of the Alexandrian text type. The phrase "plyour heavenly Father" seems to have been borrowed from verse 14. The substitution of "our" for "plyour" in some manuscripts is due to a mistake of the ear, because in later Greek the two words were pronounced alike.

Matthew 6:13:

TEXT: "but rescue us from the evil one."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D 0170 ƒ1 many lat vg most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NASV95n NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "but rescue us from the evil one, because yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen."
EVIDENCE: K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat syr(p,h,pal) TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NASVn NASV95 (in brackets) NIVn NEBn REBn TEVn CSBn

OTHER: "but rescue us from the evil one, because yours is the power forever and ever."
EVIDENCE: one lat

OTHER: "but rescue us from the evil one, because yours is the kingdom and the glory forever. Amen."
EVIDENCE: syr(c)

OTHER: "but rescue us from the evil one, because yours is the power and the glory forever. Amen."
EVIDENCE: cop(south)

COMMENTS: The familiar ending to the Lord's Prayer is absent from old manuscripts of several types of ancient text. It is found in several forms, the best known of which seems to have come from 1 Chronicles 29:11-13.

Matthew 6:15:

TEXT: "if plyou do not forgive men, neither will plyour Father forgive plyour trespasses"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) D ƒ1 892* lat vg syr(p) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: NRSV NASV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "if plyou do not forgive men their trespasses, neither will plyour Father forgive plyour trespasses"
EVIDENCE: B K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892c 1010 1241 Byz Lect few lat syr(c,h,pal) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV ESV NIV CSBn

COMMENTS: It is uncertain whether "their trespasses" is borrowed from the previous verse or omitted as not needed. The text reading follows a chiastic parallelism with the previous sentence.

Matthew 6:18:

TEXT: "your Father who sees in secret will repay you"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B D K L W Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 some Byz most Lect some lat vg most syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: A

NOTES: "your Father who sees in secret will repay you in the open"
EVIDENCE: Delta 1241 some Byz some lat one syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "in the open" are absent from the oldest manuscripts of several types of ancient text. It seems that they were added to make a contrast with "in secret," perhaps from verses 4 and 6 in those manuscripts in which they are found.

Matthew 6:28:

TEXT: "they neither labor nor spin"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a B K L W Delta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "they neither card nor spin nor labor"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)*vid
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn REBn

OTHER: "they neither spin nor labor"
EVIDENCE: Theta syr(c)

COMMENTS: The manuscripts listed as evidence under the text show several variations, especially as to whether the verbs are plural or singular in form. But in Greek a neuter plural noun can take a singular verb with no change in meaning. The footnote reading that includes carding was apparently a scribal idiosyncrasy that was corrected almost immediately. It was discovered only when the manuscript was examined under an ultra-violet lamp.

Matthew 6:33:

TEXT: "But keep seeking first the kingdom of God and his righteousness"
EVIDENCE: K L W Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV NRSV ESV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "But keep seeking first the kingdom and his righteousness"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B ("the righteousness and his kingdom") one lat cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSVn NASV NIV CSBn

COMMENTS: The words "of God" are enclosed in brackets in the UBS Greek text. On the one hand, it is possible that these words were originally absent and they were added by copyists to make the sense clear. On the other hand, since Matthew almost always uses a modifier with the word "kingdom," it is possible that they were originally present and were accidently omitted.

Matthew 7:13:

TEXT: "because the gate [is] wide and the way [is] broad"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)b B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 1241 Byz Lect some lat vg syr cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "because the way [is] wide and broad"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* 1646 some lat
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEBn

COMMENTS: It is possible that the words "the gate" were originally absent and were added from verse 14. But because of the great number of manuscripts of different text type that include them, it is probable that they are original.

Matthew 7:14:

TEXT: "How narrow the gate [is], and confined the way, that leads to life"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c B3 C K L W X*vid Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 565 700* 892 1241 Byz most Lect most lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn NIV ("But") NEB ("but") REB (no conjunction) TEV ("But") CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "Because the gate [is] narrow, and the way confined, that leads to life"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B* Xc 700c 1010 1071 1546vid some Lect cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV

NOTES: "How narrow and confined the way [is] that leads to life"
EVIDENCE: 113 182* 482 544 some lat
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: Two variations are found in this verse. The first involves the transition word. The difference is between ti ("which") and hoti ("because"). Actually the different is less than that, since the Greek "h" is merely an apostrophe, and was sometimes omitted. Now ti was used as a Semitic exclamation to mean "How!" It is easy to understand therefore why copyists who did not comprehend this Semitism would modify it to read "because" just as verse 13 does. On the other hand, there is no reason for the great majority of copyists to modify the easily understood hoti to ti which would be clearly comprehended only by those who spoke Aramaic or Hebrew. The second variation involves the unexplained absence of "the gate" from three Latin manuscripts dating from the fourth and fifth centuries and four Greek manuscripts dating from the eleventh to the fourteenth centuries. The great majority of manuscripts clearly show that the words are original.

Matthew 8:9:

TEXT: "I also am a man under authority"
EVIDENCE: C K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect some lat earlier vg syr(c,s,p,h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "I also am a man set under authority"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B most lat later vg syr(pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn

COMMENTS: The phrase "set under authority" is found in the parallel account in Luke 7:8, from which it seems to have been added here by a few copyists.

Matthew 8:10:

TEXT: "I have found so great a faith with no one in Israel"
EVIDENCE: B W ƒ1(omit "in Israel") 892 some lat syr(c,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn NRSV ESV NASV NIV REB (nowhere) TEV CSB (not anyone)
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "not even in Israel have I found so great a faith"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C K L X Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 33 565 700 1010 1241 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSVn ESVn NEB

COMMENTS: The words "not even" are found in the parallel passage in Luke 7:9, from which they seem to have been taken to replace the original "with no one" in this place.

Matthew 8:18:

TEXT: "when Jesus saw a crowd around him"
EVIDENCE: B most cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ESV NASV NIV REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: D

NOTES: "when Jesus saw crowds around him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* ƒ1 cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

NOTES: "when Jesus saw large crowds around him"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c C K L X Delta Theta Pi ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV CSBn

OTHER: "when Jesus saw a large crowd around him"
EVIDENCE: W some lat syr(c,s)
COMMENTS: It is most likely that the simple "crowd" was amplified by copyists to emphasize the size of the crowd around Jesus.

Matthew 8:28:

TEXT: "to the country of the Gadarenes"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B C(text) Delta Theta 1010 syr(s,p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "to the country of the Gergesenes"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c C(margin) K L W X Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 565 700 892 Byz Lect syr(pal) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn CSBn

NOTES: "to the country of the Gerasenes"
EVIDENCE: lat vg cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn NIVn

COMMENTS: Gadara, Gerasa, and Gergesa were all cities of the region called Decapolis, so each reading would refer to the same country. It seems most likely that "Gadarenes" was original here, while "Gerasenes" was original in Mark 5:1 and in Luke 8:26, 37. The reading "Gergesenes" seems to have been proposed by Origen, and added to manuscripts under his influence.

Matthew 8:29:

TEXT: "saying, 'What have we to do with you, [O] Son of God?'"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C* L ƒ1 33 892 few lat early vg syr(c) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "saying, 'What have we to do with you, Jesus, Son of God?'"
EVIDENCE: C3 K W Delta Theta 0242vid ƒ13 565 700 Byz most lat later vg syr(p,h) some cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Scribes often expanded the names and titles of Jesus, so the earlier, shorter reading is to be preferred.

Matthew 9:4:

TEXT: "Jesus, seeing their thoughts, said"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) C D K L N W X Delta Pi(margin) Sigma ƒ13 33 892 1010 Byz most Lect lat vg cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSVn [NRSV ESVn NASV TEV CSB("perceived/-ing")] NEB ("read") REB {"realized")
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said"
EVIDENCE: B Theta Pi(text) ƒ1 565 700 some Lect syr(p,h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV ESV NASV95 NIV

COMMENTS: Since "knowing their thoughts" is a more usual expression than "seeing their thoughts", "seeing" was more likely to have been changed to "knowing" than vice versa and is probably original.

Matthew 9:8:

TEXT: ""
EVIDENCE:
TRANSLATIONS:
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: ""
EVIDENCE:
TRANSLATIONS:

COMMENTS:

Matthew 9:13:

TEXT: ""
EVIDENCE:
TRANSLATIONS:
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: ""
EVIDENCE:
TRANSLATIONS:

COMMENTS:

Matthew 9:14:

TEXT: "Why do we and the Pharisees fast much"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)b C D K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect two lat syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ("oft") ASV ("oft") RSVn TEV ("often")
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: "Why do we and the Pharisees fast frequently"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)a most lat vg syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn

NOTES: "Why do we and the Pharisees fast"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* B few cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NASV NIV NEB

COMMENTS: The word "much" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. The reading "frequently" seems to have been borrowed from Luke 5:33. Neither word is found in the parallel in Mark 2:18. It seems most likely that "much" was original and that copyists either changed it to "frequently" or omitted it to make it the same as the parallel passages.

Matthew 9:34:

TEXT: include verse 34: But the Pharisees were saying, "He casts out demons by the prince of the demons."
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B C K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 ƒ13 28 33 565 700 892 1010 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p,h,pal) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEBn TEV
CERTAINTY: C

NOTES: omit verse 34
EVIDENCE: D three lat syr(s)
TRANSLATIONS: RSV2n NEB

COMMENTS: Although it can be argued that the verse was added from Matthew 12:24 or Luke 11:15, the fact that it is missing from only a few manuscripts, all of which are of the Western type of text and only one of which is Greek, would indicate that it is original.

Matthew 9:35:

TEXT: "curing every kind of disease and every kind of ailment"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)c B C* D N P W Delta
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NIV NEB REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: -

NOTES: "curing every kind of disease and every kind of ailment among the people"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א)* C3 K L Gamma Theta ƒ13 700 most Byz few lat few vg
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV CSBn

COMMENTS: Some manuscripts (Aleph(א)* L ƒ13)also add "add many followed him."

Matthew 10:3:

TEXT: "James the [son] of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; Simon the Cananaean"
EVIDENCE: Aleph(א) B ƒ13 892 some lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASV NIV NEBn REB TEV CSB
CERTAINTY: B

NOTES: "James the [son] of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus; Simon the Cananaean"
EVIDENCE: D two lat
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn NRSVn ESVn NEB REBn

NOTES: "James the [son] of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus called Thaddaeus; Simon the Cananaean"
EVIDENCE: C K L W X Delta Theta Pi ƒ1 28 33 565 700 1010 Byz Lect one lat syr(p,h,pal)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NKJV RSVn NRSVn ESVn CSBn

COMMENTS: The reading "Lebbaeus called Thaddaeus" is a combination of the other two readings. Since "Thaddaeus" is found in several types of ancient text, and "Lebbaeus" only in the Western type of text, "Thaddaeus" would seem to be original.


Bruce Terry's Home Page
Bruce Terry's Home Page   Index Page
Page maintained by    Copyright © 1985, 1998, 2021 Bruce Terry
Last Modified April 25, 2021
http://bible.ovu.edu/terry/tc/lay01mat.htm